Publication details

Drinking water contaminants from epoxy resin-coated pipes: A field study

Authors

RAJASÄRKKÄ Suvi Johanna Irene PERNICA Marek KUTA Jan LASNAK Jonas ŠIMEK Zdeněk BLÁHA Luděk

Year of publication 2016
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Water Research
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Science

Citation
Web http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0043135416305310
Doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.07.027
Field Environment influence on health
Keywords Drinking water; Water pipe; Epoxy resin; Spray-on-lining; Bisphenol A
Description Rehabilitation of aged drinking water pipes is an extensive renovation and increasingly topical in many European cities. A commonly used polymer is epoxy resin consisting of monomer bisphenol A (BPA). Leaching of BPA from epoxy lining to drinking water has been a concern among public and authorities. Currently epoxy lining is not recommended in some countries. BPA leaching has been demonstrated in laboratory studies but the behavior and ageing process of epoxy lining in situ is not well known. In this study 6 locations with different age epoxy linings of drinking water pipes done using two distinct technologies were studied. While bisphenol F, 4-nnonylphenol, and 4-t-octylphenol were rarely found and in trace concentrations, BPA was detected in majority of samples. The influence of ageing of epoxy lining on BPA leaching on could be shown in case of LSE technology: locations with 8-9 years old lining leached 4-20-fold more BPA compared to a location with 2-year-old lining. Analysis of metals showed that epoxy lining can reduce especially iron concentration in water. No significant burden to water could be shown by the analyzed 72 volatile organic compounds, including epichlorhydrin, precursor used in epoxy resin. Estrogenicity was detected in water samples with the highest BPA loads. Comparable responses of two yeast bioreporters (estrogen receptor alpha and BPA-targeted) indicated that bisphenol-like compounds were the main cause of estrogenicity. Compared to the estimated average daily BPA exposure, additional BPA load via cold drinking water in the studied locations was low, maximum 8.7%. However, hot water should also be considered as exposure source due to higher BPA concentrations. Epoxy lined locations should be monitored in future in order to evaluate ageing process and control increasing leaching of potentially harmful chemicals.
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