Publication details

Bullying or Reciprocity? Predominant Pattern of Behavior between the United States and North Korea



Year of publication 2017
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source North Korean Review
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Social Studies

Field Political sciences
Keywords North Korea; United States; East Asia; Reciprocity; Stimulus-response Theory; Bilateral Relations; Inter-state Relations; Cooperation
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Description This paper aims to uncover whether relations between the United States and North Korea are driven by reciprocal or bullying strategies. The empirical findings do not support the premises of the stimulus-response theory, because the actors do not always respond cooperatively to cooperation and confrontationally to confrontation. Instead, they often change the nature of the mutual exchange from cooperation to confrontation and vice- versa.The states should not expect their counterparts to respond in a reciprocal manner, especially when they strive to establish long- term cooperative relations. When dealing with North Korea, the states should take a firm stance rather than offering positive stimuli, because those tend to be exploited and not reciprocated.
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