Publication details

Endokrinní hypertenze

Title in English Endocrine hypertension
Authors

STRÁNSKÝ Otmar SOUČEK Miroslav

Year of publication 2017
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Kardiologická revue - Interní medicína
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Medicine

Citation
Field Other specializations of internal medicine
Keywords primary hyperaldosteronism; pheochromocytoma; Cushing's syndrome; primary hyperparathyroidism
Description The most common endocrine causes of hypertension are syndromes caused by overproduction of mineralocorticoids - primary hyperaldosteronism (Conn´s syndrome), and hypertension in tumours of the chromaffin tissues of the sympathetic nervous system (pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma). Endocrine hypertension is rare in congenital adrenal hyperplasia with specific steroidal enzyme disorders combined with hypertension (blockade of the 17-alpha hydroxylasis enzyme and 11-beta hydroxylasis enzyme). Hypertension, usually of a mild degree, may quite often occur as a minor symptom in a number of endocrine gland disorders – for example, endogenous hypercorticism (ACTH-dependent Cushing's disease and ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome), hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, primary hyperparathyroidism, acromegaly, renin-secreting tumours (Wilms tumour diagnosed usually in childhood). The diagnosis of endocrine hypertension is based on a complete history of the patient and objective physical examination. Endocrine hypertension is diagnosed by exclud­ing other secondary causes of hypertension, especially of renovascular and renoparenchymatous etiology. The examination consists of specific laboratory tests under specific conditions for blood and urine sampling. When the laboratory results are positive, we confirm the diagnosis by imaging examinations. The treatment of endocrine hypertension depends on its etiology; unilateral adrenalectomy is recommended in adrenal hyperfunctional adenoma with mineralocorticoid overproduction and pheochromocytoma, pharmacological therapy with aldosterone antagonists is preferred in patients with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism, in congenital adrenal hyperplasia we use chronic suppressive glucocorticoid therapy. The approach to other endocrine diseases, where hypertension is not the dominant symptom, is based on the treatment of the endocrinopathy itself – a transsphenoidal extirpation of the pituitary adenoma is used for Cushing's disease and acromegaly, unilateral adrenalectomy is indicated for ACTH-independent hypercortisolism, pharmacological treatment is used to treat hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism and parathyroidectomy in primary hyperparathyroidism. The primary task for a successful treatment of hypertension is to think about the potential endocrine origin.