Molecular phylogeny of flat-footed flies (Diptera: Platypezidae): main clades supported by new morphological evidence.
|Year of publication||2017|
|Type||Article in Periodical|
|Magazine / Source||Zoologica Scripta|
|MU Faculty or unit|
|Keywords||molecular phylogeny; Platypezidae; morphological evidence|
|Description||The molecular phylogeny of flat-footed flies is inferred from analysis of DNA sequence data from the five mitochondrial genes 12S, 16S, COI, COII and CytB, and the nuclear gene 28S and discussed with the recent systematics based on morphological features. The Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses included 42 species of 18 genera, representing all four extant subfamilies (Microsaniinae, Melanderomyiinae, Callomyiinae and Platypezinae) and all known genera except one (Metaclythia). Representatives of the brachycerous taxa Lonchopteridae, Phoridae, Sciadocerinae (Phoridae) and Opetiidae are used as outgroups, and Lonchoptera was used to root the trees. Our results show Platypezidae consisting of two well-supported clades, the first with the subfamilies Melanderomyiinae + Callomyiinae and the second formed by subfamily Platypezinae. Genus Microsania was resolved as a separate lineage distant from Platypezidae which clustered with Opetiidae as its sister group, both together forming a sister group to Platypezidae. At the generic level, the genus Agathomyia proved not to be monophyletic in any of the analyses. The species Chydaeopeza tibialis is sister to Agathomyia sexmaculata, and consequently, the genus Chydaeopeza Shatalkin, 1992 is a new junior synonym of Agathomyia Verrall, 1901. Bifurcated setae on legs of adult Platypezidae are documented as a new synapomorphy of the family, exclusive of Microsania. Outstretched wings and only a small overlap of their surfaces at resting position are considered a new synapomorphy for the subfamily Platypezinae. Other phylogenetically important characters defining main clades are documented, and their relevance/ validity in phylogenetic studies is discussed. The current systematic concept of Platypezidae is discussed, and new phylogenetic hypotheses are proposed.|