Publication details

Adipokinetic hormone and adenosine interfere with nematobacterial infection and locomotion in Drosophila melanogaster

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Year of publication 2018
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Journal of Insect Physiology
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Science

Keywords Adipokinetic hormone; adenosine; Drosophila; nematode; oxidative stress; locomotion
Description This study examined how adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and adenosine affect defense responses in Drosophila melanogaster larvae infected with entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN, Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora). Three loss-of-function mutant larvae were tested: Akh1, AdoR1 (adenosine receptor), and Akh1 AdoR1. Mortality decreased in all mutants post-EPN infection compared with the control (w1118). Additionally, co-application of external AKH with EPN significantly increased mortality beyond rates observed in EPN-only treatment, while also elevating carbon dioxide production, a measure of metabolism. Furthermore trehalose levels increased in both w1118 and Akh1 larvae post-EPN infection, but the latter group exhibited a lower increase and total trehalose levels. Interestingly, baseline trehalose was relatively high in untreated AdoR1 and Akh1 AdoR1 mutants, with levels remaining unaffected by infection. Infection also elevated haemolymph lipid content overall, but the different mutations did not substantially influence this change. In contrast, haemolymph protein content dropped after EPN infection in all tested groups, but this decline was more intense among Akh1. In uninfected larvae mutations decreased antioxidative capacity in Akh1 and increased in AdoR1, however, its post-infection increases were similar in all mutants, suggesting that antioxidant response in Drosophila involves mechanisms also beyond AKH and adenosine. Furthermore, AKH application in w1118 larvae significantly increased movement distance and percentage of larval activity, but reduced velocity. Mutations of Akh and AdoR did not strongly affect locomotion.
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