Publication details

Nástroje ruských aktivních opatření ve vybraných zemích EU

Title in English Tools of the Russian Active Measures in Chosen Countries of the EU


Year of publication 2019
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Politické vedy
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Social Studies

Web článek - open access
Keywords Active Measures; Hybrid Warfare; Information Warfare; Russia; EU
Attached files
Description The concept of active measures, which is part of influence operations of Russia, covers a broad and complex range of activities, including political, military, economic, diplomatic, media focused as well operations of secret services. During the past few years, these activities affected various regions of the European Union. The article aims to identify and analyze tools of Russian active measures used within the European Union countries with different geopolitical patterns and relations to Russia. Specifically, the study focuses on three state actors - Austria, Italy, and Bulgaria. First, in the theoretical part authors deconstruct the concept with the use of comparison to similar ones: hybrid warfare and information warfare. Next, authors consider the concept of active measures as the most proper for analyzing Russian influence operations in the European Union. The analysis and comparison of case studies have both shown clear differences and similar patterns in used active measures tools, such as an essential position of extreme right parliament parties. The concept of active measures has proven to be a helpful tool when analyzing Russian influence operations in its typical complexity.
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