Publication details

Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Flow and Vulnerability in Wadi El-Natrun Depression and Vicinities, West Nile Delta, Egypt



Year of publication 2018
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Journal of the Geological Society of India
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Science

Web Full Text
Keywords groundwater; Wadi El-Natrun; aquifer vulnerability; DRASTIC method
Description During the last 25 years, rapid and unplanned land reclamation activity has been carried out in the areas located in both south and east of Wadi El - Natrun Depression of Egypt. Accordingly, negative effects on groundwater levels and vulnerability are frequently caused by localized high levels of abstraction and the return-flow of polluted irrigation water respectively. A groundwater model is a computational method that presents an approximation of an underground water system. In this study the groundwater system is simulated both in quantity and quality by using Mass Balance Transfer Model (NETPATH), Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) and DRASTIC Model to investigate the water - rock interactions, groundwater levels drawdown and vulnerability respectively. Three main geochemical processes namely dedolomitisation, dissolution of halite and silicate weathering were estimated during the flow path. The present over-abstraction of groundwater (105.84 million m(3)/year) has induced a general head drawdown from 3 to 40 m in years 2015 and 2050 respectively. Best estimate using a 3D GMS hydraulic model was (157000 m(3)/day) a strategy proposed for the management of groundwater without critical depletion (second scenario). The results document the extent to which a high drawdown can greatly reach 4 m by the end of simulation year 2050. The vulnerability maps of groundwater were constructed using the DRASTIC index method. The results indicated that, the southeastern and central portions of the study area are having high vulnerability rate (> 110). Modified DRASTIC map showed many more dominant high risk areas in the eastern parts of the study area that were low risk, which may be attributed to return flow of polluted irrigation water.

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