Publication details

Phylo-cytogenomic Analysis of Genome Duplications in Crucifers

Authors

MANDÁKOVÁ Terezie GUO Xinyi LYSÁK Martin

Year of publication 2019
Type Conference abstract
MU Faculty or unit

Central European Institute of Technology

Citation
Description Many wild and cultivated plants arise through genome duplication or polyploidization, which is an important speciation mechanism. The knowledge of how and when these processes occur can inform us both how current plant diversity was shaped by evolution and how we could improve the crops. Based on previous findings in our group (RG Plant Cytogenomics, CEITEC), my current research interests focus on combining bioinformatics and cytogenetics to study the genome evolution in cruciferous species (Brassicaceae), especially in polyploids. Recently, I’m investigating Biscutelleae species, one of the earliest diverged tribe in the Brassicaceae, which has five recognized genera. Except for the diploid Megadenia (n=6), the four remaining genera were found to have a tetraploid origin. Heldreichia has experienced recent (less than 3.4 Mya) autopolyploidization from an ancestral n=5 genome. Biscutella (n=6, 8, 9), Lunaria (n=14, 15) and Ricotia (n=13, 14) originated through independent inter-tribal hybridizations between two genomes with n=7 and n=8 chromosomes that diverged around the split of major Brassicaceae lineages (from 20 to 25 Mya). The allopolyploid events were followed by genus- and species-specific genome rearrangements and reduction of chromosome numbers. Meanwhile, we found evidence of ancient gene flows between Biscutelleae and other Brassicaceae lineages. Collectively, these findings suggested that the rapid divergence of Brassicaceae was accompanied by frequent hybridizations between its early diverging members.
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