Publication details

ADAR RNA Modifications, the Epitranscriptome and Innate Immunity

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QUIN Jaclyn Elizabeth SEDMÍK Jiří VUKIĆ Dragana KHAN Anzer KEEGAN Liam O'CONNELL Mary Anne

Year of publication 2021
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Trends in Biochemical Sciences
MU Faculty or unit

Central European Institute of Technology

Keywords RNA editing; double-stranded RNA (dsRNA); pattern recognition receptors (PRRs); interferon; antiviral responses; autoinflammatory disease
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Description Modified bases act as marks on cellular RNAs so that they can be distinguished from foreign RNAs, reducing innate immune responses to endogenous RNA. In humans, mutations giving reduced levels of one base modification, adenosine-to-inosine deamination, cause a viral infection mimic syndrome, a congenital encephalitis with aberrant interferon induction. These Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 6 mutations affect adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1), which generates inosines in endogenous double-stranded (ds)RNA. The inosine base alters dsRNA structure to prevent aberrant activation of antiviral cytosolic helicase RIG-I-like receptors. We review how effects of inosines, ADARs, and other modi-fied bases have been shown to be important in innate immunity and cancer.
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