Publication details

Instrumental and bioanalytical assessment of pharmaceuticals and hormone-like compounds in a major drinking water source-wastewater receiving Zayandeh Rood river, Iran

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Year of publication 2022
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Environmental Science and Pollution Research
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Science

Keywords Drugs; Endocrine disruptors; In vitro biotest; LC-MS; MS; Nontargeted screening
Description Zayandeh Rood river is the most important river in central Iran supplying water for a variety of uses including drinking water for approximately three million inhabitants. The study aimed to investigate the quality of water concerning the presence of pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) and hormonelike compounds, which have been only poorly studied in this region. Sampling was performed at seven sites along the river (from headwater sites to downstream drinking water source, corresponding drinking water, and treated wastewater) affected by wastewater effluents, specific drought conditions, and high river-water demand. The targeted and nontargeted chemical analyses and in vitro bioassays were used to evaluate the presence of PhACs and hormonelike compounds in river water. In the samples, 57 PhACs and estrogens were detected with LC-MS/MS with the most common and abundant compounds valsartan, carbamazepine, and caffeine present in the highest concentrations in the treated wastewater in the concentrations of 8.4, 19, and 140 mu g/L, respectively. A battery of in vitro bioassays detected high estrogenicity, androgenicity, and AhR-mediated activity (viz., in treated wastewater) in the concentrations 24.2 ng/L, 62.2 ng/L, and 0.98 ng/L of 17 beta-estradiol, dihydrotestosterone and 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents, respectively. In surface water samples, estrogenicity was detected in the range of <0.42 (LOD) to 1.92 ng/L of 17 beta-estradiol equivalents, and the drinking water source contained 0.74 ng/L of 17 beta-estradiol equivalents. About 19% of the estrogenicity could be explained by target chemical analyses, and the remaining estrogenicity can be at least partially attributed to the potentiation effect of detected surfactant residues. Drinking water contained several PhACs and estrogens, but the overall assessment suggested minor human health risk according to the relevant effect-based trigger values. To our knowledge, this study provides some of the first comprehensive information on the levels of PhACs and hormones in Iranian waters.
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