Publication details

What Digital Immunoassays Can Learn from Ambient Analyte Theory: A Perspective


GORRIS Hans-Heiner SOUKKA Tero

Year of publication 2022
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Analytical chemistry
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Science

Keywords Assays; Biopolymers; Immunoassays; Immunology; Peptides and proteins
Description Immunoassays are important tools for clinical diagnosis as well as environmental and food analysis because they enable highly sensitive and quantitative measurements of analyte concentrations. In the 1980s, Roger Ekins suggested to improve the sensitivity of immunoassays by employing microspot assays, which are carried out under ambient analyte conditions and do not change the bulk analyte concentration of a sample during a measurement. More recently, the measurement of single analyte molecules has additionally attracted wide research interest. Although the ability to detect a single analyte molecule is not synonymous with the highest analytical sensitivity, single-molecule detection makes new routes accessible to avoiding background noise. This perspective follows the development of solid-phase immunoassays from the design of label techniques to single-molecule (digital) assays against the backdrop of Ekins’s fundamental work on immunoassay theory. The essential aspects of both ambient analyte and digital assay approaches are presented as a guideline to finding a balance between the speed, sensitivity, and precision of immunoassays.

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