Publication details

Čeští fašisté na Moravě

Title in English The Czech Fascists in Moravia


Year of publication 2008
Type Chapter of a book
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Arts

Description The Czech political spectre was enriched by the extreme elements quite early. The Czech fascists appeared as early as 1922 and before the year ended, they presented their programme, even if only vague. The background was formed by obvious marked Czech nationalism aimed at the Germans and at the internationalism of the Socialists and mainly Communists. It was also aimed at "nationally half-hearted" Castle (meaning the President) and gradually also at Jews all over the world. The Moravian fascists grouped around a magazine called Hanácká republika, which was newly called Národní republika since spring 1923. RNDr. Vladimír Teyrovský, a founder of the Czech ethology, and MUDr. Jan Navrátil, the owner of a sanatorium in Brno, were active in Brno. The National Fascist Community appeared in March 1926, when all fascistic subjects joined together. It was a semi-military community, organized into units and groups with rigid principle of leadership. At the same time, professional organisations, fascist trade unions, agricultural syndicate, a young people's organisation called Omladina and Fascist students union appeared. The new political groupings also created its own armed component, a militia, which they pretended was organising group and was dressed in black uniforms after their ltalian models. lt was called Junáci NFC. General Gajda had a special position among officers. However, it was suspected since May 1926 that he was not on ly secret member of NFC, bUl also its leader. The programme of the National Fascist Community had four main points at that time: 1) disruption of tbe system of pluralistic parliamentary democracy and creation of authoritative central administration witb the Leader in its head, 2) dismissal of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, 3) to curtail the rights of the Germans, Hungarians, foreigners and Jews and 4) the change of the Czechoslovak foreign policy, which would mean the refusal of Locarno treaty and consistent anti-German policy. Also they wanted to stop negotiations with the Soviet Russia and interruption of all relations with the Soviet government. A journalist from Brno O. Lebloch, a former member of the National Socialist Party and an editor of Moravská orlice, elaborated theoretical form of fascistic Czechoslovakia in his study Fascistic State. For the first time, he formulated an idea of creation of the corporate state in Czech lands. Years 1925/26 witnessed a political crisis in Czechoslovakia, which also brought mobilisation of fascists. The Czech fascists became free to act when the German politicians joined the government. The so called coup affair also passed in 1926, after which General Gajda was accused of the preparation of the putsch against the state and removed from his military rank and function.
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