Antropologie

Příroda skrze kulturu.

Co se naučíte

Program má za cíl připravovat špičkové odborníky v oboru Antropologie rozvíjeném na Ústavu antropologie PřF MU. Absolventi jsou připraveni na vědeckou kariéru v akademických institucích, ale také na možné uplatnění ve firmách disponujících výzkumným zázemím, na pracovištích s historicko-archeologickým zaměřením (archeologická pracoviště, muzea, ústavy památkové péče) nebo se zaměřením na forenzní a bezpečnostní oblast v národním (Policie ČR) i mezinárodním prostředí (OSN, NGOs), ve zdravotnických zařízeních a v neposlední řadě jako odborní lektoři.

Jednotlivá oddělení Ústavu antropologie pokrývají následující výzkumná témata a témata odborné znalecké činnosti, ve kterých jsou také školeni doktorandi:

Exkavace a exhumace lidských pozůstatků v archeologickém a forenzním kontextu

Identifikace kosterních nálezů v archeologickém a forenzním kontextu

Portrétní identifikace osob na audiovizuálních záznamech

Praxe

Praxe (s výjimkou laboratorní odborné činnosti) není povinnou součástí studia.

Chcete vědět víc?

Webové stránky pracoviště: http://www.sci.muni.cz/anthrop/

Webové stánky Laboratoře morfologie a forenzní antropologie: http://www.sci.muni.cz/lamorfa

Uplatnění absolventů

Absolventi doktorského studijního programu Antropologie mohou získanou kvalifikaci uplatnit zejména v antropologicky orientovaných akademických institucích a výzkumných ústavech, jako odborní pracovníci, vedoucí výzkumného týmu, vysokoškolští učitelé apod. Jsou oprávněni realizovat samostatnou vědeckou a výzkumnou činnost v oblasti základního i aplikovaného výzkumu se zaměřením na antropologii, biologii člověka a forenzní vědy. V širším smyslu jsou připraveni provádět všechny činnosti spojené s vědeckou prací, tzn. zabývat se koncepčními otázkami, vědecko-organizační činností a také výukou.

Podmínky přijetí

Údaje z předchozího přijímacího řízení (přihlášky 1. 1. – 30. 4. 2021)

Uchazeč musí prokázat znalosti biologie člověka, včetně fylogenetického a ontogenetického vývoje a ekologických a socioekonomických souvislostí v rozsahu přednášeném v kurzech navazujícího magisterského studia oboru Antropologie na Přírodovědecké fakultě Masarykovy university. Za prokázané znalosti může uchazeč získat bodové hodnocení max. 20 bodů. Odborné požadavky a okruhy otázek jsou uvedeny na: https://anthro.sci.muni.cz/media/3261722/okruhy_statnice.pdf Dále musí být uchazeč schopen obhájit, že téma disertační práce navržené ve spolupráci s potenciálním školitelem je dobře vědecky podložené a technicky, časově i finančně zvládnutelné. Powerpoint (či jiná) prezentace projektu dizertační práce v českém nebo anglickém jazyce je vítaná. Za schopnost obhájit zvolené téma projektu dizertační práce může uchazeč získat max. 50 bodů. Uchazeč předloží téma a navrhované řešení disertační práce v písemné podobě (1-2 stránky) v anglickém jazyce (ve 3 výtiscích). Dále musí být uchazeč schopen reagovat na odborné otázky komise týkající se tématu práce položené v anglickém jazyce. Za prokázání jazykových schopností může uchazeč získat max. 30 bodů.

Kritéria hodnocení

Pro přijetí musí uchazeč získat min. 60/100 bodů.


Výzkumná zaměření dizertačních prací

Jednooborové studium

Antropologie adopce. Mezikulturní srovnání.
Školitel: doc. Mgr. Petr Květina, Ph.D.
Adoption is the appropriation of an individual by a family unrelated biologically. This relationship forms part of the Western civilization cultural code. We also know that adoption exists outside the Western social space and can be historically traced in written sources. However, what is the concept of adoption in pre-literary societies? Adoption is ethnographically documented also in these societies, but questions concern its frequency and social function. In other words: how often adoption occurs in pre-literary or archaic societies, why it happens and whether this phenomenon can be detected beyond the existence of written sources. The aim of this work is to conduct a broad scale cross-cultural research. In addition to the questions formulated above, the goal will also be to identify cultural correlates that can be associated with adoption.
Material: primary data source: HRAF (https://hraf.yale.edu/), phylogenetic supertree by J.Zrzavý team (https://www.nature.com/articles/srep29890).
Metody: multivariate statistics, GIS models.
Školitel

doc. Mgr. Petr Květina, Ph.D.

Forensic Skeletal Traumatology
Školitel: doc. RNDr. Petra Urbanová, Ph.D.
The topic aims to implement, establish and further develop assessment of skeletal trauma within the context of forensic sciences, forensic anthropology in particular. Assessing skeletal trauma, its timing, mechanisms of origin (gunshot, blunt/sharp-force, suicides by hanging, falls from height etc.), or evidence of foul play is one of the most important tasks forensic practitioners are requested to perform in cases of dead bodies or skeletal remains. The current progress in medical imaging techniques and 3D analytical techniques has allowed the experts to perform such tasks in the virtual workspace, using non-invasive, contact-less approaches. Furthermore, additional advanced technologies and techniques, such 3D printing, mathematical biobalistic modeling, 3D graphics and animations started being implemented into forensic casework.
The candidates are expected to have the background in biology, preferably biological anthropology, knowledge of advanced imaging approaches (e.g., computed tomography, microCT, 3D scanning), 3D modeling applications at the user’s level (Meshlab, AMIRA/AVIZO, Maya) and the concept of forensic sciences is welcome.
The topic may generate individual projects as follows:

1) Assessment of skeletal injuries using finite element analysis
2) Simulations and animations of death-related events in forensic sciences
3) Differentiating between peri- and post-mortem skeletal injuries in the neck elements
4) Skeletal injuries at the microscopic level – experimental study

MORE INFORMATION: www.sci.muni.cz/lamorfa

PLEASE NOTE that before initiating the formal application process to doctoral studies, all interested candidates are required to contact the future supervisor (urbanova@sci.muni.cz) for informal discussion.
Školitel

doc. RNDr. Petra Urbanová, Ph.D.

Morphological markers of early development in the reconstruction of the human life history
Školitel: doc. RNDr. Miroslav Králík, Ph.D.
The development of some structures of the human body is completed after their formation in the early development – either in all respects (tooth enamel) or in some aspect (topology of dermatoglyphics). Therefore, they represent a fixed record – an indicator in the diagnostic sense – of early ontogenetic processes. By comparing their variations with the current properties of the organism (prosperity, health, growth, length of life) we can estimate the importance of the relevant ontogenetic phase for subsequent life, and from their relationships with external factors (stress, diet, physical load) the role of the external environment in this process. The aim of the project is, within a frame of ontogenetic theories, to propose specified hypotheses about the influence of the processes of early development on subsequent development, growth, reproduction, life expectancy and other aspects of human life history, and to test them using suitable morphological ontogenetic markers.

The topic may generate individual projects as follows:
1) Minutiae of the human epidermal ridges as morphological markers of prenatal disruptive factors
2) Effect of assortative mating in parental generation on prenatal and postnatal development of their offspring
3) Family effects on prenatal development as measured by means of digit ratios and dermatoglyphics
4) Osteological and dental markers of prenatal stress and their relationships to morbidity, mortality and the life span
5) Inter-birth interval as a factor of prenatal development
Školitel

doc. RNDr. Miroslav Králík, Ph.D.

Parasitic infections as a consequence or a reason of different primate lifestyle strategies
Školitel: Mgr. Klára Petrželková, Ph.D.
Most human pathogens either coevolved with primate lineages, including those that led to Homo sapiens, or were transmitted from animals during domestication processes. Some of the parasites evolved with mankind for thousands or millions of years and can reflect human behavior, habitat use, and environmental and cultural conditions. Therefore, understanding of human evolution and population history can be expanded by ecological and evolutionary research on our parasites. Soil-transmitted helminths (STH), such as hookworms, nodular worms, or whipworms, and snail-borne schistosomes occur in a range of primate hosts, humans including. The patterns of parasite infections are mostly influenced by spatial proximity of suitable (reservoir) hosts, hosts’ food habits, and in humans also by lifestyle in general. People in communities with low socioeconomic status are more threatened by STH infections which further negatively impact the quality of their life. On the other hand, the absence of parasites in urban human populations has probably led to a higher occurrence of some autoimmune diseases, such as Crohn’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, or some allergies. Ecological and evolutionary studies of parasites in sympatric primate hosts, including humans, can tell us more about the evolutionary history of the hosts, host species divergence, or parasite adaptation mechanisms. The proposed PhD topic aims to investigate how the host’s lifestyle impacts the parasite communities inhabiting the host’s gastrointestinal system using combination of traditional anthropological approaches and different tools ranging from microscopy, nucleic acid amplification tests, high-throughput sequencing, phylogenetic methods, including whole mitochondrial genome analyses or molecular clock, a tool used to determine the timing of species divergence which can elucidate the co-evolution of the hosts. Non-human primates living in habitats differing in biodiversity, including sympatry with other (non-human) primates and various human populations differing in the lifestyle, e. g., (nomadic) pastoralists, rural and urban communities, across Africa will be the model hosts.

Individual projects within this topic could be specified as follows:

1) Relationship of the lifestyle and parasitic infections in hunters-gatherers, rural and urban communities, and primate hosts in Central Africa

2) Impact of the habitat diversity, including co-occurrence of multiple primate species, on the helminth infections in African great apes with focus on mountain gorillas

3) Molecular clock in selected soil-transmitted helminths infecting primates as a tool for mapping the hosts’ evolution

PLEASE NOTE that before initiating the formal application process to doctoral studies, all interested candidates are required to contact the future supervisor.
Školitel

Mgr. Klára Petrželková, Ph.D.

Topics in biosocial anthropology
Školitel: prof. Slawomir Marek Koziel, DSc.
1) Biological effect of upward social mobility and social inequality

The aim of this study would be an assessment of selectiveness of social mobility in relation to height. It has been shown that taller persons have greater chance to get higher social position than smaller persons. But upward social mobility could be moderates by the level of social inequality. The study should include 3-4 European countries contrasting in social inequality assessed by commonly used indexes like Gini coefficient. Social mobility would be defined as a changes of the social position of studies person in comparison to his father social position, measured by achieved education level and/or profession. The study could use the social media as a source of information, this would be also novel approach.

2) Polymorphisms of dopaminergic genes: DRD4, DRD2, COMT and DAT1 and risk taking behaviour. Study of (Czech or Polish or Slovak) soldiers taking part in combat missions

The aim of the study is an assessment of relationship between frequencies of certain polymorphisms of dopaminergic genes and risk taking behaviour. There are many reports showing association between polymorphism of DRD4 gen with some personality traits like novelty seeking. Other studies have indicated relationship between long allele of DRD4 with such risk taking behaviour like gambling and financial risk. However, there is a lack of research reporting association between such behaviour and polymorphisms in other dopaminergic genes. There is also no any data showing relationship between those polymorphisms and risk behaviour exposing human life. Proposed study will be based on comparison of frequencies of polymorphisms in three groups: (1) soldiers taking part and (2) not taking part in combat missions and (3) control group of males, who are not soldiers.

3) Role of permanent stress in emerging and sustaining the social differences in biological condition.

The aim of this study would be to assess the stress level based on chemical analysis of hairs and estimation of glucocorticoids and cortisol metabolites level in persons from different social strata. There are many findings pointing out the differences in health and biological conditions between people differed in level of education and job position. Controlling for elements of lifestyle, it would be interesting to assess the role of permanent stress.

4) Body length proportion and age at peak height velocity.

The aim of the study would be to find which length measures and their proportions are the best predictors of age at peak height velocity (APHV). It is well known that the peak height velocity starts with acceleration of growth long bones from lower extremities. So, using the longitudinal data and measures of segments of lower and upper extremities it would be possible to find a certain ratio of certain segments which would be the best predictors of APHV.
Školitel

prof. Slawomir Marek Koziel, DSc.

Informace o studiu

Zajišťuje Přírodovědecká fakulta
Typ studia doktorský
Forma prezenční ano
kombinovaná ano
Možnosti studia jednooborově ano
jednooborově se specializací ne
v kombinaci s jiným programem ne
Doba studia 4 roky
Vyučovací jazyk čeština
Oborová rada a oborové komise

Váháte? Máte otázku? Pošlete nám e-mail na

Zajímá vás obsah a podmínky studia programu Antropologie? Zeptejte se přímo konzultanta programu:

doc. RNDr. Petra Urbanová, Ph.D.

Konzultant programu

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