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Differences in food intake and genetic variability in taste receptors between pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus

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BARTÁKOVÁ Vendula KURICOVÁ Katarína ZLÁMAL Filip ŠINDELÁŘOVÁ Michaela KOVÁČOVÁ Katarína KOVÁČOVÁ Lívia BĚLOBRÁDKOVÁ jana KAŇKOVÁ Kateřina

Rok publikování 2015
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Popis Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) represents the most frequent metabolic disorder in pregnancy. Since dietary intake plays an important role in obesity development it could also influence the susceptibility to GDM. Very little focus has been given to possible differences in pre-gestational and gestational dietary intake between healthy pregnant women and GDM complicated pregnancies. Taste can play a non-negligible role in food preferences. Previous studies found an association of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes for taste receptors (TR) with type 2 diabetes mellitus, however, no study ascertained the possible relationship between different allelic variants of TR genes and GDM. The aim of our study was 1) to characterize dietary habits of pregnant women and to find possible differences in food preferences between healthy pregnant women and those with GDM and 2) to ascertain possible association of several SNPs in TR genes with GDM. A total of 357 pregnant women (293 with GDM and 64 with physiologic pregnancy) were included in the study. All subjects underwent oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) with 75g of glucose between 24-30th week of pregnancy. GDM was diagnosed according to the WHO criteria: FPG ? 5.6 mmol/l, 1-hr post-load glucose ? 8.9 mmol/l and 2-hr post-load glucose ? 7.7 mmol/l (any one of the three above cut-off values qualified for the GDM diagnosis). 88.7% of participants (196 GDM and all controls) filled a food frequency questionnaire covering pregnancy period. A total of 5 SNPs in TR genes - TAS1R2 gene (rs35874116) for sweet TR, TAS2R7 (rs619381) and TAS2R9 (rs3741845) gene for bitter TR, CD36 (rs1527479) gene for “fat” TR and finally a gene SLC2A2 (rs5400) for glucose transporter GLUT2 were selected for genotyping. Women with GDM exhibited significantly more frequent meat consumption (esp. poultry, pork and smoked meat), dairy products and sweet drink consumption (P=0.02, chi-square test). GG genotype in TAS2R9 gene (SNP rs3741845) was significantly associated with GDM (P=0.0087, chi-square test). No associations were ascertained between alleles or genotypes of SNPs studied and BMI, total weight increment during pregnancy, offspring birth weight or glucose levels during oGTT. In conclusion, our study showed differences in dietary intake of selected food items between healthy pregnant women and those with GDM and genetic association of bitter taste receptor allele with GDM. Possible relationship between those findings requires further study. Supported by IGA MZ ČR grant, no. NT13198
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