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Pollen-inferred millennial changes in landscape patterns at a major biogeographical interface within Europe

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JAMRICHOVÁ Eva PETR Libor JIMÉNEZ ALFARO GONZÁLEZ Borja JANKOVSKÁ Vlasta DUDOVÁ Lydie POKORNÝ Petr KOLACZEK Piotr ZERNITSKAYA Valentina ČIERNIKOVÁ Malvína BŘÍZOVÁ Eva SYROVÁTKA Vít HÁJKOVÁ Petra HÁJEK Michal

Druh Článek v odborném periodiku
Časopis / Zdroj Journal of Biogeography
Fakulta / Pracoviště MU

Přírodovědecká fakulta

Citace
Doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13038
Obor Ekologie - společenstva
Klíčová slova Central Europe; distribution pattern; glacial; gradient analysis; historical biogeography; Holocene; palaeoecology; pollen; refugia
Popis The regional co-occurrence of contrasting bioclimatic elements (warm-temperate, continental, boreal, arctic-alpine) may be shaped by the distribution of their refugia. We tested this hypothesis using pollen proxies in a region where such refugia are expected, but not unequivocally demonstrated. Compositional patterns were assessed by principal coordinates analyses (PCoA) with a sensitivity analysis based on a bootstrap technique. Site PCoA scores were interpolated geographically and correlated with palaeoclimatic models. Consistently over the last 15,000 years, the first ordination axis sorted samples according to the proportion of deciduous temperate trees, while the second axis consistently followed an altitudinal gradient that coincided with temperature. The principal gradient was more important than the altitudinal gradient except for the Late Glacial and Bronze & Iron Ages, when both gradients were of similar importance. The fine-grained pattern in the present mountain landscape was formed as late as during early modern colonization. Since the Late Glacial, the landscape has been differentiated into temperate, continental and cold regions. This finding supports the hypothesis that refugia are a key factor for understanding current biogeography in Central Europe. The Late Glacial occurrence of temperate trees is unlikely to be explained only by gradual migrations from southern Europe. Humid but relatively warm mountains hence might have acted as glacial refugia of temperate forest species, while lowlands and leeward basins might have acted as post-glacial refugia of steppe grasslands. The strong contrast between forested (temperate) and more open continental landscapes during the Early Holocene seems to correspond with recent diversity patterns. Our results highlight the relevance of integrating past landscape trajectories into modern biogeographical models.
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