Informace o publikaci

Two-dimensional modeling of density and thermal structure of dense circumstellar outflowing disks



Rok publikování 2018
Druh Článek v odborném periodiku
Časopis / Zdroj Astronomy and Astrophysics
Fakulta / Pracoviště MU

Přírodovědecká fakulta

Klíčová slova stars: massive; stars: mass-loss; stars: winds-outflows; stars: evolution; stars: rotation; hydrodynamics
Popis Context. Evolution of massive stars is affected by a significant loss of mass either via (nearly) spherically symmetric stellar winds or by aspherical mass-loss mechanisms, namely the outflowing equatorial disks. However, the scenario that leads to the formation of a disk or rings of gas and dust around massive stars is still under debate. Aims. We study the hydrodynamic and thermal structure of optically thick, dense parts of outflowing circumstellar disks that may be formed around various types of critically rotating massive stars, for example, Be stars, B[e] supergiant (sgB[e]) stars or Pop III stars. Methods. We specify the optical depth of the disk along the line-of-sight from stellar poles. Within the optically thick dense region we calculate the vertical disk thermal structure using the diffusion approximation while for the optically thin outer layers we assume a local thermodynamic equilibrium with the impinging stellar irradiation. We use two of our own types of hydrodynamic codes: two-dimensional operator-split numerical code and unsplit code based on the Roe's method. Results. Our models show the geometric distribution and contribution of viscous heating that begins to dominate in the central part of the disk. In the models of dense viscous disks the viscosity increases the central temperature up to several tens of thousands of Kelvins. The high mass-loss rates and high viscosity lead to instabilities with significant waves or bumps in density and temperature in the very inner disk region. Conclusions. The two-dimensional radial-vertical models of dense outflowing disks including the full Navier-Stokes viscosity terms show very high temperatures that are however limited to only the central disk cores inside the optically thick area, while near the edge of the optically thick region the temperature may be low enough for the existence of neutral hydrogen.
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