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Signatures of diversifying selection and convergence acting on passerine Toll-like receptor 4 in an evolutionary context

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KRÁLOVÁ Tereza ALBRECHT Tomáš BRYJA Josef HOŘÁK D. JOHNSEN A. LIFJELD J.T. NOVOTNY M. SEDLACEK O. VELOVA H. VINKLER Michal

Rok publikování 2018
Druh Článek v odborném periodiku
Časopis / Zdroj Molecular Ecology
Fakulta / Pracoviště MU

Přírodovědecká fakulta

Citace
Doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.14724
Klíčová slova functional evolution; host-pathogen interaction; surface charge distribution; TLR4 molecular phenotype; Toll-like receptors
Popis Positive selection acting on Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has been recently investigated to reveal evolutionary mechanisms of host-pathogen molecular co-adaptation. Much of this research, however, has focused mainly on the identification of sites predicted to be under positive selection, bringing little insight into the functional differences and similarities among species and a limited understanding of convergent evolution in the innate immune molecules. In this study, we provide evidence of phenotypic variability in the avian TLR4 ligand-binding region (LBR), the direct interface between host and pathogen molecular structures. We show that 55 passerine species vary substantially in the distribution of electrostatic potential on the surface of the receptor, and based on these distinct patterns, we identified four species clusters. Seven of the 34 evolutionarily nonconservative and positively selected residues correspond topologically to sites previously identified as being important for lipopolysaccharide, lipid IVa or MD-2 binding. Five of these positions codetermine the identity of the charge clusters. Groups of species that host-related communities of pathogens were predicted to cluster based on their TLR4 LBR charge. Despite some evidence for convergence among taxa, there were no clear associations between the TLR4 LBR charge distribution and any of the general ecological characteristics compared (migration, latitudinal distribution and diet). Closely related species, however, mostly belonged to the same surface charge cluster indicating that phylogenetic constraints are key determinants shaping TLR4 adaptive evolution. Our results suggest that host innate immune evolution is consistent with Fahrenholz's rule on the cospeciation of hosts and their parasites.