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High-Resolution Numerical Modelling of Near-Surface Atmospheric Fields in the Complex Terrain of James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula

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Rok publikování 2021
Druh Článek v odborném periodiku
Časopis / Zdroj Atmosphere
Fakulta / Pracoviště MU

Přírodovědecká fakulta

Klíčová slova air temperature simulation; atmospheric model validation; bare ground; glacier; polar me- teorology; Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model; wind speed simulation; Ulu Peninsula
Popis The Antarctic Peninsula belongs to the regions of the Earth that have seen the highest increase in air temperature in the past few decades. The warming is reflected in degradation of the cryospheric system. The impact of climate variability and interactions between the atmosphere and the cryosphere can be studied using numerical atmospheric models. In this study, the standard version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was validated on James Ross Island in the northern part of the Antarctic Peninsula. The aim of this study was to verify the WRF model output at 700 m horizontal resolution using air temperature, wind speed and wind direction observations from automatic weather stations on the Ulu Peninsula, the northernmost part of James Ross Island. Validation was carried out for two contrasting periods (summer and winter) in 2019/2020 to assess possible seasonal effects on model accuracy. Simulated air temperatures were in very good agreement with measurements (mean bias -1.7 °C to 1.4 °C). The exception was a strong air temperature inversion during two of the winter days when a significant positive bias occurred at the coastal and lower-altitude locations on the Ulu Peninsula. Further analysis of the WRF estimates showed a good skill in simulating near-surface wind speed with higher correlation coefficients in winter (0.81–0.93) than in summer (0.41–0.59). However, bias and RMSE for wind speed tended to be better in summer. The performance of three WRF boundary layer schemes (MYJ, MYNN, QNSE) was further evaluated. The QNSE scheme was generally more accurate than MYNN and MYJ, but the differences were quite small and varied with time and place. The MYNN and QNSE schemes tended to achieve better wind speed simulation quality than the MYJ scheme. The model successfully captured wind direction, showing only slight differences to the observed values. It was shown that at lower altitudes the performance of the model can vary greatly with time. The model results were more accurate during high wind speed southwestern flow, while the accuracy decreased under weak synoptic-scale forcing, accompanied by an occurrence of mesoscale atmospheric processes.
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