Informace o publikaci

Mega-sized pericentromeric blocks of simple telomeric repeats and their variants reveal patterns of chromosome evolution in ancient Cycadales genomes



Rok publikování 2022
Druh Článek v odborném periodiku
Časopis / Zdroj The Plant Journal
Fakulta / Pracoviště MU

Přírodovědecká fakulta

Klíčová slova Telomeres; genome evolution; chromosome rearrangements; Cycadaceae; gymnosperms; centromeres; epigenetics
Popis Simple telomeric repeats composed of 6-7 iterating nucleotide units are important sequences typically found at the ends of chromosomes. Here we analyzed their abundance and homogeneity in 42 gymnosperm (29 newly sequenced), 29 angiosperm (1 newly sequenced) and 8 bryophytes using bioinformatics, conventional cytogenetic and molecular biology approaches to explore their diversity across land plants. We found more than 10,000-fold variation in the amounts of telomeric repeats among the investigated taxa. Repeat abundance was positively correlated with increasing intragenomic sequence heterogeneity and occurrence at non-telomeric positions, but there was no correlation with genome size. The highest abundance/heterogeneity was found in the gymnosperm genus Cycas (Cycadaceae), in which megabase-sized blocks of telomeric repeats (i.e. billions of copies) were identified. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments using variant-specific probes revealed canonical Arabidopsis-type telomeric TTTAGGG repeats at chromosome ends, while pericentromeric blocks comprised at least four major telomeric variants with decreasing abundance: TTTAGGG>TTCAGGG >TTTAAGG>TTCAAGG. Such a diversity of repeats was not found in the sister cycad family Zamiaceae or in any other species analyzed. Using immunocytochemistry, we showed that the pericentromeric blocks of telomeric repeats overlapped with histone H3 serine 10 phosphorylation signals. We show that species of Cycas have amplified their telomeric repeats in centromeric and telomeric positions on telocentric chromosomes to extraordinary high levels. Ancestral chromosome number reconstruction suggests their occurrence is unlikely to be the product of ancient Robertsonian chromosome fusions. We speculate as to how the observed chromosome dynamics may be associated with the diversification of cycads.
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