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European habitats as donors of alien plant species for other continents

Název česky Evropské biotopy jako zdroje nepůvodních druhů rostlin pro jiné kontinenty


Rok publikování 2010
Druh Článek ve sborníku
Konference Biological Invasions in a Changing World - from Science to Management. Neobiota Book of Abstracts.
Fakulta / Pracoviště MU

Přírodovědecká fakulta

Obor Botanika
Klíčová slova biological invasion; Europe; primary habitat; exotic plant; species pool
Popis Several comparative studies have shown that habitats significantly differ in the numbers or proportions of alien species they harbour. Recent research has focused on the causes of these differences and their practical consequences. However, detailed studies on the match between species habitat affinities in their native and invaded range are still scarce, although they could improve our understanding of the invasion process and predictions of potential invasions. In this study, major European habitats were investigated as donors of alien species for the other parts of the world. Species lists for 38 broadly defined European vegetation units were compiled according to the Map of the Natural Vegetation of Europe (Bohn et al. 2004), covering natural vegetation of the whole European continent. The proportion of European native species which successfully naturalized on other continents was quantified for each of these vegetation units. European species introduced to other continents were distinguished using two sources: (1) the list of invasive plant species on the world scale (Weber 2003), and (2) Synthesis of the North American Flora (Kartesz 2010) together with U. S. Federal and State Noxious Weed Lists (USDA, NCRS 2010) on the continental scale of North America. All data sets revealed a consistent pattern. Two distinctive types of European habitats had the highest proportion of native European species that successfully established on other continents or in North America. The first group includes costal habitats such as heaths and sand-dune vegetation, characterized by low productivity, but high disturbance levels and possible connection with the transoceanic transport. The second group includes nutrient-rich habitats also experiencing frequent disturbances, both natural and anthropogenic (riverine forests and scrub, alder and birch cars, degraded bogs). In contrast, nutrient-poor and relatively undisturbed habitats such as tundra, alpine vegetation or montane pine forests provide the lowest numbers of species for introductions elsewhere. There is a remarkable coincidence between the proportion of species introduced from a given European habitat to other regions and the level of invasion by neophytes of the same habitat type in Europe. This indicates that habitats that are more invaded by alien plants also represent an important source of species capable of invasion to new regions.
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