Publication details

Temperature structure in the Perseus cluster core observed with Hitomi

Authors

AHARONIAN F. AKAMATSU H. AKIMOTO F. ALLEN S.W. ANGELINI L. AUDARD M. AWAKI H. AXELSSON M. BAMBA A. BAUTZ M.W. BLANDFORD R. BRENNEMAN L.W. BROWN GV. BULBUL E. CACKETT EM. CHERNYAKOVA M. CHIAO MP. COPPI PS. COSTANTINI E. DE PLAA J. DE VRIES C.P. DEN HERDER J.W. DONE C. DOTANI T. EBISAWA K. ECKART ME. ENOTO T. EZOE Y. FABIAN A.C. FERRIGNO C. FOSTER AR. FUJIMOTO R. FUKAZAWA Y. FURUKAWA M. FURUZAWA A. GALEAZZI M. GALLO L.C. GANDHI P. GIUSTINI M. GOLDWURM A. LY Gu GUAINAZZI M. HABA Y. HAGINO K. HAMAGUCHI K. HARRUS IM. HATSUKADE I. HAYASHI K. HAYASHI T. HAYASHIDA K. HIRAGA JS. HORNSCHEMEIER A. HOSHINO A. HUGHES J.P. ICHINOHE Y. IIZUKA R. INOUE H. INOUE Y. ISHIDA M. ISHIKAWA K. ISHISAKI Y. IWAI M. KAASTRA J. KALLMAN T. KAMAE T. KATAOKA J. KATO Y. KATSUDA S. KAWAI N. KELLEY R.L. KILBOURNE C.A. KITAGUCHI T. KITAMOTO S. KITAYAMA T. KOHMURA T. KOKUBUN M. KOYAMA K. KOYAMA S. KRETSCHMAR P. KRIMM HA. KUBOTA A. KUNIEDA H. LAURENT P. LEE SH. LEUTENEGGER MA. LIMOUSIN O. LOEWENSTEIN M. LONG KS. LUMB D. MADEJSKI G. MAEDA Y. MAIER D. MAKISHIMA K. MARKEVITCH M. MATSUMOTO H. MATSUSHITA K. MCCAMMON D. MCNAMARA B.R. MEHDIPOUR M. MILLER ED. MILLER JM. MINESHIGE S. MITSUDA K. MITSUISHI I. MIYAZAWA T. MIZUNO T. MORI H. MORI K. MUKAI K. MURAKAMI H. MUSHOTZKY R.F. NAKAGAWA T. NAKAJIMA H. NAKAMORI T. NAKASHIMA S. NAKAZAWA K. NORUKAWA KK. NOBUKAWA M. NODA H. ODAKA H. OHASHI T. OHNO M. OKAJIMA T. OTA N. OZAKI M. PAERELS F. PALTANI S. PETRE R. PINTO C. PORTER FS. POTTSCHMIDT K. REYNOLDS C.S. SAFI-HARB S. SAITO S. SAKAI K. SASAKI T. SATO G. SATO K. SATO R. SAWADA M. SCHARTEL N. SERLEMITSOS P.J. SETA H. SHIDATSU M. SIMIONESCU A. SMITH RK. SOONG Y. STAWARZ L. SUGAWARA Y. SUGITA S. SZYMKOWIAK A. TAJIMA H. TAKAHASHI H. TAKAHASHI T. TAKEDA S. TAKEI Y. TAMAGAWA T. TAMURA T. TANAKA T. TANAKA Y. TANAKA YT. TASHIRO MS. TAWARA Y. TERADA Y. TERASHIMA Y. TOMBESI F. TOMIDA H. TSUBOI Y. TSUJIMOTO M. TSUNEMI H. TSURU TG. UCHIDA H. UCHIYAMA H. UCHIYAMA Y. UEDA S. UEDA Y. UNO S. URRY C.M. URSINO E. WATANABE S. WERNER Norbert WILKINS DR. WILLIAMS BJ. YAMADA S. YAMAGUCHI H. YAMAOKA K. YAMASAKI NY. YAMAUCHI M. YAMAUCHI S. YAQOOB T. YATSU Y. YONETOKU D. ZHURAVLEVA I. ZOGHBI A.

Year of publication 2018
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Science

Citation
Doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pasj/psy004
Keywords galaxies: clusters: individual (Perseus); methods: observational; X-rays: galaxies: clusters
Description The present paper explains the temperature structure of X-ray emitting plasma in the core of the Perseus cluster based on 1.8-20.0 keV data obtained with the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) on board the Hitomi Observatory. A series of four observations was carried out, with a total effective exposure time of 338 ks that covered a central region of similar to 7' in diameter. SXS was operated with an energy resolution of similar to 5 eV (full width at half maximum) at 5.9 keV. Not only fine structures of K-shell lines in He-like ions, but also transitions from higher principal quantum numbers were clearly resolved from Si through Fe. That enabled us to perform temperature diagnostics using the line ratios of Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe, and to provide the first direct measurement of the excitation temperature and ionization temperature in the Perseus cluster. The observed spectrum is roughly reproduced by a single-temperature thermal plasma model in collisional ionization equilibrium, but detailed line-ratio diagnostics reveal slight deviations from this approximation. In particular, the data exhibit an apparent trend of increasing ionization temperature with the atomic mass, as well as small differences between the ionization and excitation temperatures for Fe, the only element for which both temperatures could be measured. The best-fit two-temperature models suggest a combination of 3 and 5 keV gas, which is consistent with the idea that the observed small deviations from a single-temperature approximation are due to the effects of projecting the known radial temperature gradient in the cluster core along the line of sight. A comparison with the Chandra/ACIS and the XMM-Newton/RGS results, on the other hand, suggests that additional lower-temperature components are present in the intracluster medium (ICM), but not detectable with Hitomi/SXS giving its 1.8-20 keV energy band.

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