Publication details

The relation between the cyberhate and cyberbullying experiences of adolescents in the Czech Republic, Poland, and Slovakia



Year of publication 2022
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Computers in Human Behavior
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Social Studies

Keywords Cyberhate; Cyberbullying; Cyberaggression; Bifactor model; Adolescents
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Description This study investigates the structural relationship between two types of cyberaggression: cyberhate and cyberbullying. Cyberhate is online hate speech that attacks collective identities. Cyberbullying is defined by the intent to harm, its repeated nature, and a power imbalance. Considering these features and the shared commonalities, we used survey data from adolescents from the Czech Republic, Poland, and Slovakia (N = 3,855, aged 11–17) to examine the relationship between them. We tested a bifactor model with the general common risk factor and two distinct factors of cyberhate and cyberbullying. We also tested alternative one-factor and two-factor models. The bifactor structure showed the best fit and allowed for the further examination of the unique and common features of cyberhate and cyberbullying by testing their associations with selected risk and protective factors. The results showed that the general risk factor was associated with higher age, emotional problems, and time spent online. Individual-based discrimination was associated with cyberbullying and the general risk factor. Group-based discrimination was associated with cyberhate and cyberbullying. Exposure to harmful online content was associated with all factors. Considering that prior research did not sufficiently differentiate between these two phenomena, our study provides an empirically-based delimitation to help to identify their shared basis and differences.
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