Publication details

Toxicity increases in ice upon containing monochlorophenols upon photolysis: environmental consequences

Authors

BLÁHA Luděk KLÁNOVÁ Jana KLÁN Petr JANOŠEK Jaroslav ŠKAREK Michal RŮŽIČKA Radovan

Year of publication 2004
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Environmental Science & Technology
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Science

Citation
Field Environment influence on health
Keywords Toxicity increases in ice upon containing monochlorophenols upon photolysis: environmental consequences
Description The toxic effects of photoproducts formed upon the photolysis of 2- and 4-chlorophenol (CP) frozen solutions in polycrystalline ice phase were determined with a bacterial luminescence test (Vibrio fisheri), and in vitro biomarker assay for dioxin-like effects (inductions of AhR-dependent luciferase in H4IIE-luc cells), and compared to the toxic effects of products of the same photoreaction in aquatic phase. Coupling photoproducts formed in ice samples (3-chlorobiphenyl-2,4-diol and 3-chlorobiphenyl-2,2-diol from 2-CP photolysis, and 5-chlorobiphenyl-2,4-diol from 4-CP photolysis) were found to be more toxic to Vibrio fisheri than parent CPs and elicited significant inductions of dioxin-like effects (the effective concentrations EC50 ~ 3 10-5 mol L-1 corresponded to known weaker ligands of AhR, such as non-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)). To complete the picture, a photoproduct formed from 4-CP (5-chlorobiphenyl-2,4-diol) was synthesized, and a detailed toxicity assessment with purified compound confirmed the results obtained with irradiated samples. Our findings support a recently proposed model according to which solar radiation can trigger formation of new types of organic pollutants in polar ice or tropospheric ice cloud particles, presenting possibly greater risk to the environments than the parent compounds.
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