Ecological research of James Ross Island. Ecosystem components-based approach to study structure and function of Antarctic vegetation oases.
|Year of publication||2016|
|Type||Article in Proceedings|
|Conference||Book of Abstracts|
|MU Faculty or unit|
|Keywords||Antarctica; ecology; bacteria; algae; lichens|
|Description||Long-term research of structure and function of Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems has been carried out on northern part of James Ross Island (JRI) by Czech scientists since 2007. In this contribution, results of both long-term studies and latest achievements of 2016 Czech Antarctic Expeditions are presented. Long-term ecological projects focus Climatology, Glaciers and permafrost, Hydrology and limnology, Terrestrial Biology, Environmental Science, and Medical Science. Main results are related to changes in climate characteristics on a local scale and their reflection in glacier mass dynamics and active layer of permafrost variation. Measurements of permafrost depth along a 6-km-long profile and on permanent research plots was done repeatedly using a probe approach. Soil samples in vertical profile of some probes were taken for analyses of grain structure and mass/volume soil characteristics. Recently a 6-m-deep drill was done into a permafrost to install temperature sensors for a long-term monitoring of temperature profile. Since JRI has a large deglaciated area, a great variety of biotops exhibiting, thank to different water availability during vegetation season, different stages of colonization are available for detailed biological studies. From samples collected within last several years, a great number of autotrophs (diatoms, algae, cyanobacteria) are reported as well as some heterotrophs, including new-for-science bacteria Pseudomanoas prosekii, P. gregormendelii. Recently, a great attention is devoted to seal carcasses found at JRI (altitute up to 200 m a.s.l.) in great numbers. Colonization of seal carcasses by lichens, mosses and other autotrophic organisms was studied as a species richness appearing in a close neighborhood of the carcasses. ... BIOLOGY cut off|