Circulating plasma cells in monoclonal gammopathies
|Year of publication
|Article in Periodical
|Magazine / Source
|MU Faculty or unit
|Oncology and hematology
|circulating plasma cells; flow cytometry; monoclonal gammopathies; plasma cell leukemia
|Background: Monoclonal gammopathies are characterized by presence of clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow, although peripheral blood circulating plasma cells can be found in a significant proportion of patients. The number of circulating plasma cells is an independent prognostic marker associated with shorter survival, but it can also help to predict early relapse. The reason and mechanism of plasma cell expansion from the bone marrow to enter peripheral blood is still not entirely clear, but possible changes in the expression of adhesion molecules are probably involved. Multiparametric flow cytometry allows simple and exact enumeration of circulating plasma cells in different types of cell suspensions, even in their low quantity. The phenotype profile and confirmation of clonality regarding to their bone marrow clonal counterparts should be verified as well. There is no uniform method used in clinical laboratories for circulating plasma cells analyses at this moment. Aim: Review is focused on use of multiparametric flow cytometry for circulating plasma cells analysis in peripheral blood. It is comparing possibilities of their detection by different methods and on clinical relevance of that assessment. The standardization of analyses is the main goal. Conclusion: Multiparametric flow cytometry is a very sensitive method for detection of circulating plasma cells, so using a standardized approach can lead to determination and implementation of the flow cytometry diagnostic threshold in plasma cell leukemia suspicious cases as well as in prognostication of monoclonal gammopathies patients. Moreover,analysis of plasma cells phenotypic profile could probably clarify their future behaviour.