Publication details

Role paliativní radioterapie při krvácení lokálně pokročilých nádorů gastrointestinálního traktu

Title in English The Role of Palliative Radiotherapy in Bleeding from Locally Advanced Gastrointestinal Tumors


Year of publication 2017
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Klinická onkologie
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Medicine

Field Other medical specializations
Keywords Palliative Radiotherapy
Description Patients with locally advanced gastrointestinal tumors present with typical symptoms including pain, obstructive problems with passage disorders and bleeding. The last of them negatively affects their quality of life and is potentially lethal. Palliative radiotherapy is used in hemostatic indication to control bleeding from locally advanced or recurrent inoperable gastrointestinal tumors for many years. Purpose: This review summarizes information and available literature about mechanisms, efficiency and toxicity of palliative radiotherapy used in hemostatic indication, separately for each part of the digestive system. Although most of the published studies are retrospective, all of them show fast, effective and technically safe control of bleeding with minimal risk of toxicity and show an improvement of quality of life. Hypofractionated radiotherapy, with a smaller number of high doses, seems to be the appropriate palliative fractionation schedule. The higher daily dose is associated with faster initiation of hemostatic effect, while few radiotherapy treatment sessions are comfortable for patients; both of them meet the basic principles of state-of-the-art palliative care. In addition to external beam radiotherapy, high dose rate brachytherapy represents another possibility in this indication, especially for locally advanced inoperable anal and rectal cancer. Brachytherapy is simple, practical and most importantly a one-time procedure with high local effect without significant toxicity. Conclusion: Radiotherapy is an important treatment possibility for palliative care of bleeding from locally advanced inoperable gastrointestinal cancers. Future prospective studies employing modern radiotherapeutic techniques and procedures are needed to provide consistent and clear evidence in order to weigh risks against benefits of palliative hemostatic radiotherapy in current daily clinical practice.

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