Publication details

Elucidating mechanisms of immunotoxicity by benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Implication of the AHR-IL17/IL22 immune pathway


LI Zhitong LIANG Xuefang LIU Wang ZHAO Yaqian YANG Huiting LI Wenjing ADAMOVSKÝ Ondřej MARTYNIUK Christopher J.

Year of publication 2020
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Environmental Pollution
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Science

Keywords Benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers; Hepatic damage; Liver transcriptome; AHR-IL17/IL22 pathway; Immunotoxicology
Description Benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers (BUVSs) are widely used additives in industrial materials and personal care products that protect products from ultraviolet damage. Due to their high production volume and potential to bioaccumulate, BUVSs are an environmental pollutant of concern. In this study, juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 4 BUVSs (UV-234, UV-326, UV-329, and UV-P) at 10 and 100 mg/L for 28 d. BUVSs induced hepatic vacuolization and nuclei pyknosis in the liver following 100 mg/L UV-234 and UV-329 exposure. Transcriptomic analysis in the liver uncovered pathways related to inflammation that were affected by BUVSs. Based upon these data, we measured the expression levels of 9 genes involved in AHR-IL17/IL22 pathway in zebrafish larvae exposed to each BUVSs at one dose of either 10 or 100 mg/L for 6 days in a second set experiment. Transcript levels of interleukins il17a and il22 were decreased, while il6 mRNA was increased with exposure to UV-234, UV-329, and UV-P. No change to targeted transcripts was observed with UV-326 treatments. Moreover, cyp1a1 and ahr2 levels were increased in larvae treated with 100 mg/L UV-329 or UV-P. Consistent with expression data, protein abundance of IL22 was decreased by 29% with exposure to 100 mg/L UV-P. Taken together, these results demonstrate that exposure to different benzotriazole congeners may be associated with immunotoxicity in zebrafish through the AHR-IL17/IL22 pathway, and this may be associated with hepatic damage with prolonged exposures. This study provides new insight into unique pathways perturbed by specific BUVSs congeners.

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