Publication details

Multi-city comparative PM2.5 source apportionment for fifteen sites in Europe: The ICARUS project

Authors

SARAGA D. MAGGOS T. DEGRENDELE Céline KLÁNOVÁ Jana HORVAT M. KOCMAN D. KANDUC T. GARCIA DOS SANTOS S. FRANCO R. MORILLO GOMEZ P. MANOUSAKAS M. BAIRACHTARI K. ELEFTHERIADIS K. KERMENIDOU M. KARAKITSIOS S. GOTTI A. SARIGIANNIS D.

Year of publication 2021
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Science of the Total Environment
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Science

Citation
Web https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969720353845
Doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141855
Keywords Particulate matter; Chemical composition; Positive Matrix Factorization; Source apportionment; Multi-city study; Sources homogeneity
Description PM(2.)5 is an air pollution metric widely used to assess air quality, with the European Union having set targets for reduction in PM2.5 levels and population exposure. A major challenge for the scientific community is to identify, quantify and characterize the sources of atmospheric particles in the aspect of proposing effective control strategies. In the frame of ICARUS EU2020 project, a comprehensive database including PM2.5 concentration and chemical composition (ions, metals, organic/elemental carbon, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) from three sites (traffic, urban background, rural) of five European cities (Athens, Brno, Ljubljana, Madrid, Thessaloniki) was created. The common and synchronous sampling (two seasons involved) and analysis procedure offered the prospect of a harmonized Positive Matrix Factorization model approach, with the scope of identifying the similarities and differences of PM2.5 key-source chemical fingerprints across the sampling sites. The results indicated that the average contribution of traffic exhausts to PM2.5 concentration was 23.3% (traffic sites), 13.3% (urban background sites) and 8.8% (rural sites). The average contribution of traffic non-exhausts was 12.6% (traffic), 13.5% (urban background) and 6.1% (rural sites). The contribution of fuel oil combustion was 3.8% at traffic, 11.6% at urban background and 18.7% at rural sites. Biomass burning contribution was 22% at traffic sites, 30% at urban background sites and 28% at rural sites. Regarding soil dust, the average contribution was 5% and 8% at traffic and urban background sites respectively and 16% at rural sites. Sea salt contribution was low (1-4%) while secondary aerosols corresponded to the 16-34% of PM2.5. The homogeneity of the chemical profiles as well as their relationship with prevailing meteorological parameters were investigated. The results showed that fuel oil combustion, traffic non-exhausts and soil dust profiles are considered as dissimilar while biomass burning, sea salt and traffic exhaust can be characterized as relatively homogenous among the sites.
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