Controlled high temperature stability of microwave plasma synthesized graphene nanosheets
|Year of publication
|Article in Periodical
|Magazine / Source
|Journal of physics D: Applied physics
|MU Faculty or unit
|graphene; microwave plasma; thermal stability; defects; oxidation resistance
|High temperature stability of nanomaterials plays an important role for their application in the field of nanocomposites, batteries, and sensors. Few-layer graphene nanosheets prepared by microwave plasma based decomposition of ethanol exhibited high thermal stability in the oxidation atmosphere in dependence on controlled formation of structural disorder. Analysis of differential thermogravimetry (DTG) curve profile showed three temperature regions, around 345 degrees C, 570 degrees C and above 700 degrees C, related to amorphous phase with a carbon-oxygen functional groups, small defective nanostructures and highly crystalline structure of graphene nanosheets, respectively. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of the nanosheets showed an increase of D/G Raman band ratio as well as increasing of sp(3) phase content, from 6.1 at% to 15.2 at%, for highly crystalline and highly disordered structure of the nanosheets. Thermal annealing under synthetic air was used to investigate the variation in D/G and 2D/G Raman band ratio of the samples and to estimate activation energy of oxidation and disintegration process of graphene nanosheets. The highest oxidation resistance exhibited sample with high 2D/G band ratio (1.54) and lowest oxygen content of 1.7 at%. The synthesis process led to stabilization of nanosheet structure by formation of curved edges and elimination of free dangling bonds. The nanosheets prepared in microwave plasma exhibited high surface area, over 350 m(2) g(-1), and superior thermal stability with defect activation energy in an oxidation atmosphere higher than 2 eV. Heat release rate during the oxidation process was in correlation with the amount of disorder in the samples. Fast and easy to use technique based on high power Raman spectroscopy was developed for assessment of nanomaterial oxidation resistance.