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A Simple Teabag Equilibrium Passive Sampler using hydrophilic divinylbenzene sorbent for contaminants of emerging concern in the marine environment

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Year of publication 2021
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Science of the Total Environment
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Science

Keywords Micropollutant; Passive sampling; Sampling rate; Equilibrium partitioning; Teabag; Marine environment
Description A promising concept for sampling contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) using a home-made Simple Teabag Equilibrium Passive Sampler (STEPS) containing hydrophilic divinylbenzene (h-DVB) sorbent is presented and evaluated for application in estuarine systems. The uptake of a multi-class mixture of CECs with a broad polarity range (Log P ranging from -0.1 to 9.9) was investigated in static exposure batch experiments. Sampling rates (R-s) and equilibrium partitioning coefficients (K-sw) were determined for up to 74 CECs. Fast uptake (R-s = 0.3-12 L d(-1)) was noticed and the STEPS attained equilibrium partitioning after 1 to 2 weeks of exposure, with Log K-sw ranging from 4.1 to 6.5 L kg(-1). Field application of this novel h-DVB containing STEPS, followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry, revealed the presence of up to 40 steroidal hormones, (alkyl)phenols, phthalates, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pesticides in the Belgian Part of the North Sea. The measured trace concentrations (from 0.003 ng L-1 to 1.9 mu g L-1) and good precision (average RSD < 30%, n = 3) demonstrate the STEPS as fit-for-purpose for micropollutant analysis in the marine environment.
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