Local Wnt signalling in the asymmetric migrating vertebrate cells
|Year of publication
|Article in Periodical
|Magazine / Source
|Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
|MU Faculty or unit
|Wnt; Planar cell polarity; Cell migration; Axon guidance; Vangl; neural crest cell migration; amoeboid migration
|Wnt signalling is known to generate cellular asymmetry via Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway (Wnt/PCP). Wnt/PCP acts locally (i) to orient membrane polarity and asymmetric establishment of intercellular junctions via conserved set of PCP proteins most specifically represented by Vangl and Prickle, and (ii) to asymmetrically rearrange cytoskeletal structures via downstream effectors of Dishevelled (Dvl). This process is best described on stable phenotypes of epithelial cells. Here, however, we review the activity of Wnt signalling in migratory cells which experience the extensive rearrangements of cytoskeleton and consequently dynamic asymmetry, making the localised effects of Wnt signalling easier to distinguish. Firstly, we focused on migration of neuronal axons, which allows to study how the pre-existent cellular asymmetry can influence Wnt signalling outcome. Then, we reviewed the role of Wnt signalling in models of mesenchymal migration including neural crest, melanoma, and breast cancer cells. Last, we collected evidence for local Wnt signalling in amoeboid cells, especially lymphocytes. As the outcome of this review, we identify blank spots in our current understanding of this topic, propose models that synthesise the current observations and allow formulation of testable hypotheses for the future research.