Separase and Roads to Disengage Sister Chromatids during Anaphase
|Year of publication
|Article in Periodical
|Magazine / Source
|International Journal of Molecular Sciences
|MU Faculty or unit
|separase; chromosome division; segregation errors; cohesin; securin; Cyclin B1; CDK1; Sgo2; Mad2; aneuploidy
|Receiving complete and undamaged genetic information is vital for the survival of daughter cells after chromosome segregation. The most critical steps in this process are accurate DNA replication during S phase and a faithful chromosome segregation during anaphase. Any errors in DNA replication or chromosome segregation have dire consequences, since cells arising after division might have either changed or incomplete genetic information. Accurate chromosome segregation during anaphase requires a protein complex called cohesin, which holds together sister chromatids. This complex unifies sister chromatids from their synthesis during S phase, until separation in anaphase. Upon entry into mitosis, the spindle apparatus is assembled, which eventually engages kinetochores of all chromosomes. Additionally, when kinetochores of sister chromatids assume amphitelic attachment to the spindle microtubules, cells are finally ready for the separation of sister chromatids. This is achieved by the enzymatic cleavage of cohesin subunits Scc1 or Rec8 by an enzyme called Separase. After cohesin cleavage, sister chromatids remain attached to the spindle apparatus and their poleward movement on the spindle is initiated. The removal of cohesion between sister chromatids is an irreversible step and therefore it must be synchronized with assembly of the spindle apparatus, since precocious separation of sister chromatids might lead into aneuploidy and tumorigenesis. In this review, we focus on recent discoveries concerning the regulation of Separase activity during the cell cycle.