Publication details

Performance comparison of three passive samplers for monitoring of polar organic contaminants in treated municipal wastewater

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Year of publication 2024
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Science of the Total Environment
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Science

Keywords Mass transfer; POCIS; Speedisk; O-DGT; Pharmaceuticals; Pesticides
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Description Over the past decades, several types of passive samplers have been developed and used to monitor polar organic compounds in aquatic environments. These samplers use different sorbents and barriers to control the uptake into the sampler, but their performance comparison is usually not well investigated. This study aimed to directly compare the performance of three samplers, i.e., the Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS), the Hydrogel-based Passive Sampler (HPS, an upscaled version of o-DGT), and the Speedisk, on a diverse suite of pharmaceuticals, per- and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS), and pesticides and their metabolites. The samplers were deployed side-by-side in the treated effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant for different exposure times. All samplers accumulated a comparable number of compounds, and integrative uptake was observed for most compounds detected up to 28 days for POCIS, up to 14 days for HPS, and up to 42 days for Speedisk. In the integrative uptake phase, consistent surface-specific uptake was observed with a significant correlation between samplers (r >= 0.76) despite differences in sampler construction, diffusion barrier, and sorbent material used. The low sampling rates compared to the literature and the low estimated overall mass transfer coefficient suggests that the water boundary layer was the main barrier controlling the uptake for all samplers. Although all devices provided comparable performance, Speedisk overcomes POCIS and HPS in several criteria, including time-integrative sampling over a long period and physical durability.
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