Publication details

Phylogenetic relationships within family Stratiomyidae (Diptera) based on both morphological data and 16S rDNA sequences



Year of publication 2005
Type Article in Proceedings
Conference Proceedings of the 5th Asia-Pacific Congress of Entomology
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Science

Field Zoology
Keywords phylogenetic relationships; Stratiomyidae; 16S rDNA
Description The family Stratiomyidae encompasses very diversified species of Diptera, ranging from 2.0 to 25.0 mm in length. The recent classification was remarkably influenced by a study on larvae published by McFadden (1967) who suggested some important changes in the traditional inner hierarchy of Stratiomyidae. Relationships of the European genera and higher taxa were discussed by Rozkošný (1983). As far as we are informed, no attempt to use the molecular genetic data for phylogenetic analysis of the family has been published. Recently the relationships of Parhadrestiinae (Woodley 1986), Beridinae (Woodley 1995) and, at last, of all subfamilies and tribes in the world extent (Woodley 2001) were discussed on the basis of morphological data. Aim of this study was to identify phylogenetic relationships of Palaearctic and Oriental genera belonging to Beridinae, Pachygastrinae, Sarginae, Hermetiinae, Stratiomyinae (Oxycerini, Stratiomyiini) and Nemotelinae subfamilies. The analysis is based on both 16S rDNA sequences and morphological data of 22 species. DNA was extracted from abdomen and thoracic musculatures by phenol/chlorophorm extraction and the QiaQuick PCR Purification Kit (Qiagen). Primers mt32 and mt34 (Nirmala et al. 2001) were used to amplify approximately 400 bp fragment of 16S rRNA gene. PCR products were purified using QiaQuick PCR Purification Kit (Qiagen) and used for direct sequencing on ABI Prism 310 Genetic Analyser. Sequences of both strands were manually processed using Sequencher v. 4.5 (GeneCodes) and phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses were conducted using MEGA version 3.0 (Kumar, Tamura, Nei 2004). Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed using maximum parsimony (MP), neighbour-joining (NJ) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods with Jukes-Cantor pairwise distances. All three phylogenetic methods of sequence analysis gave a similar results and provided a satisfactory support to morphological data at specific and generic levels. All the examined taxa are grouped in the way fully corresponding to the recent concept of genera forming the distinct phyletic lineages which are identical with subfamilies Sarginae, Hermetiinae, Beridinae, Nemotelinae and Pachygastrinae. Only members of the heterogenous subfamily Stratiomyinae are divided into two different phyletic lineages with one of them containing monophyletic group of species from the the tribe Oxycerini, while the tribe Stratiomyini seems polyphyletic. Information achieved for higher taxa is much more problematic. Compared with the cladistic argumentation by Woodley (2001), especially the sister groups are not defined unambiguously and the subfamily Stratiomyinae splits into more phyletic lineages. Though the mutal relationships among the subfamilies proposed by Woodley are by far not definitive, it appears to be sufficiently clear that phylogenetic methods based on DNA sequence data should be applied to the assemblage of the species extented also to other zoogeographical regions. 16S rDNA sequences showed pronounced differences even between closely related species. Oxycera marginata and O. pardalina from Europe (3.3%) and Culcua nigra and a new species Culcua sp.n. from the Oriental Region (7.8%). It suggest that this marker could be very usefull also in intra-generic revisions of Diptera. We acknowledge financial support from the Research Project MSM No. 0021622416 of Masaryk University, Brno and the PhD Research Fellowship (GACR 524/05/H536).
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