Publication details

Uptake kinetics of pesticides chlorpyrifos and tebuconazole in the earthworm &ITEisenia andrei&IT in two different soils

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Year of publication 2018
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Environmental Pollution
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Science

Keywords Currently used pesticides; Bioaccumulation; Toxicokinetics; Eisenia andrei; Soil; Chlorpyrifos; Tebuconazole
Description Agriculture is today indispensably connected with enormous use of pesticides. Despite tough regulation, their entrance into soil cannot be excluded and they might enter soil organisms and plants and continue further to terrestrial food chains. This study was conducted to investigate the bioaccumulation of two pesticides currently used in large amounts, the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CLP) and the fungicide tebuconazole (TBZ). Their detailed uptake kinetics in the model earthworm species Eisenia andrei were measured in two arable soils differing in organic carbon content (1.02 and 1.93% respectively). According to our results, a steady state was reached after 3-5 days for both pesticides and soils. The values of bioaccumulation factors calculated at the steady state ranged from 4.5 to 6.3 for CLP and 2.2-13.1 for TBZ. Bioaccumulation factors were also calculated as the ratio of uptake and elimination rate constants with results comparable with steady-state bioaccumulation factors. The results suggested that the degradation and bioaccumulation of tested compounds might be influenced by other factors than only total organic carbon (e.g. clay content). The lower K-oc and hydrophobicity of TBZ relative to CLP probably led to higher availability of TBZ through pore water exposure. On the other hand, CLP's higher hydrophobicity probably caused an increase in availability by its additional uptake via ingestion. To enable a proper ecological risk assessment of current pesticides in soils, it is necessary to accurately determine their bioaccumulation in soil invertebrates. We believe that our study not only brings such information for two specific pesticides but also addresses key methodological issues in this area.
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