Markers of Atherosclerosis. Part 2, Genetic and Imaging Markers
|Year of publication
|Article in Periodical
|Magazine / Source
|HEART LUNG AND CIRCULATION
|MU Faculty or unit
|Biomarkers; Atherosclerosis; Genetic polymorphism; Imaging biomarkers; Carotid intima media thickness; Micro RNA
|This is Part 2 of a two-part review summarising current knowledge on biomarkers of atherosclerosis. Part 1 addressed serological biomarkers. Here, in part 2 we address genetic and imaging markers, and other developments in predicting risk. Further improvements in risk stratification are expected with the addition of genetic risk scores. In addition to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), recent advances in epigenetics offer DNA methylation profiles, histone chemical modifications, and micro-RNAs as other promising indicators of atherosclerosis. Imaging biomarkers are better studied and already have a higher degree of clinical applicability in cardiovascular (CV) event prediction and detection of preclinical atherosclerosis. With new methodologies, such as proteomics and metabolomics, discoveries of new clinically applicable biomarkers are expected.