Publication details

Study of karyotype structure and evolution in the genus Trifolium (Fabaceae)

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Year of publication 2019
Type Conference abstract
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Science

Description Over the last few decades karyotype structure and its aberrations and evolution have been successfully studied in animals and humans using chromosome banding techniques and lately molecular techniques based on in situ hybridization of probes (fluorescence in situ hybridization FISH, multicolour M-FISH, spectral karyotyping, etc.). Despite its common utilization in humans and animals, chromosome banding techniques are not applicable in many plant species due to their rather uniform chromosome banding patterns (Schubert et al., 2001). Therefore, plant karyotype study is in many cases dependent on addressing specific DNA sequences via hybridization techniques. This situation is even more complicated by the fact that large chromosome segments or whole chromosomes can not be utilized in plant karyotype studies due to high complexity and large amount of repeated structures of various types. Therefore, cytogenetic analyses in plants developed to exploit synthetic oligonucleotide libraries (oligopaint FISH; Beliveau et al., 2012) and high-capacity DNA vectors such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). Utilization of BAC clones enabled development of technique called BAC-FISH, where single or several BAC clones are used as specific probes containing large segments of DNA (Shizuya et al., 1992). This technique was later extended to utilize chromosome-specific BAC contigs as painting in probes in closely related species (comparative chromosome painting, CCP) and to paint large chromosome regions such as chromosome arms or whole chromosomes (BAC-painting). BAC-painting was first established in the family Brassicaceae with Arabidopsis thaliana being the first plant species with all chromosomes painted (Lysák et al., 2001; Pecinka et al., 2004) and to date remains to be established only in this family and in Brachypodium (family Poaceae) (Betekhtin et al., 2014). The aim of this study is to analyse karyotype of Trifolium, agriculturally important genus of the family Fabaceae. In this study karyotype structure of selected Trifolium species with different basic chromosome number (x = 8, 7, 6, 5) and different level of ploidy will be reconstructed and compared in order to identify mechanism of chromosome number reduction and processes accompanying allopolyploidization. In this study we will also utilize Medicago truncatula BAC library in order to label individual Trifolium chromosomes with the intention to establish chromosome painting methodology in the family Fabaceae for further application of comparative chromosome painting.
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