Publication details

Classification of forest and shrubland vegetation in Mediterranean Turkey


KAVGACI Ali BALPINAR Neslihan ÖNER Hafize Handan ARSLAN Münevver BONARI Gianmaria CHYTRÝ Milan ČARNI Andraž

Year of publication 2021
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Applied Vegetation Science
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Science

Keywords coniferous forest; deciduous forest; garrigue; macchia; Mediterranean; numerical analysis; phrygana; plant communities; shrubland; Turkey; vegetation-plot database; vegetation types
Description Questions What are the main vegetation types of forest and shrubland vegetation at the alliance level in Mediterranean Turkey? What is their syntaxonomical position? Can we integrate them into the European vegetation classification system? Which environmental factors are the main drivers of the floristic differentiation of vegetation types? Location Southern and western Turkey. Methods We collected 4,717 vegetation plots of forest and shrubland vegetation in Mediterranean Turkey and performed an unsupervised classification of this data set. We described vegetation types based on the classification results, expert knowledge and information from the literature. We defined diagnostic species and prepared distribution maps for each vegetation type. To support the interpretation of the vegetation types, we determined the most important environmental variables using canonical correspondence analysis. Results The studied vegetation was divided into 21 types related to three vegetation belts: (a) thermo- and meso-mediterranean, comprising coniferous (Pinus brutia, Pinus pinea) and sclerophyllous forests, as well as macchia, garrigue and phrygana; (b) supra-mediterranean, comprising Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana forests, thermophilous deciduous forests dominated by various oak species and Ostrya carpinifolia, and forests dominated by temperate species such as Fagus orientalis; and (c) oro-mediterranean, comprising forests and shrublands dominated by Abies cilicica, Cedrus libani, Juniperus excelsa and Juniperus communis subsp. nana. Elevation was identified as the main environmental driver of the vegetation pattern. Among climatic variables, the most important are the mean temperatures (annual and of driest, coldest, and warmest quarters), minimum temperature of winter, precipitation of warmest and driest quarters and precipitation seasonality. These factors indicate the decreasing effect of the Mediterranean climate with increasing elevation. Conclusions The vegetation of Mediterranean Turkey is arranged along climatic gradients depending on elevation and the distance from the Mediterranean Sea. Most vegetation types in this area correspond to the syntaxa accepted in EuroVegChecklist, while others were described as new.
Related projects:

You are running an old browser version. We recommend updating your browser to its latest version.

More info