Publication details

Metabolism of Selected 2-Arylbenzofurans in a Colon In Vitro Model System



Year of publication 2021
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Foods
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Pharmacy

Keywords moracin C; mulberrofuran G; mulberrofuran Y; permeability assay; Caco-2 cells; intestinal fermentation; LC-MS-Q-TOF
Description 2-arylbenzofurans represent a small group of bioactive compounds found in the plant family Moraceae. As it has not been investigated whether these substances are stable during passage through the gastrointestinal tract, their biological effects may be altered by the metabolism of intestinal microbiota or cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare mulberrofuran Y (1), moracin C (2), and mulberrofuran G (3) in an in vitro model of human intestinal bacterial fermentation and in an epithelial model using the Caco-2 cell line. The analysis of compounds by LC-MS-Q-TOF showed sufficient stability in the fermentation model, with no bacterial metabolites detected. However, great differences in the quantity of permeation were observed in the permeability assay. Moreover, mulberrofuran Y (1) and moracin C (2) were observed to be transformed into polar metabolites by conjugation. Among the test compounds, mulberrofuran Y (1) was mostly stable and accumulated in endothelial cells (85.3%) compared with mulberrofuran G (3) and moracin C (2) (14% and 8.2%, respectively). Thus, only a small amount of mulberrofuran Y (1) was conjugated. Moracin C (2) and mulberrofuran G (3) were metabolized almost completely, with only traces of the unchanged molecule being found on the apical and cellular sides of the system. Only conjugates of mulberrofuran Y (1) and moracin C (2) were able to reach the basolateral side. Our results provide the basic description of bioavailability of these three compounds, which is a necessary characteristic for final evaluation of bio-efficacy.
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