Publication details

Examining the applicability of polar organic chemical integrative sampler for long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination caused by currently used pesticides

Investor logo
Investor logo


Year of publication 2023
Type Article in Periodical
Magazine / Source Science of the Total Environment
MU Faculty or unit

Faculty of Science

Keywords Water quality monitoring; Passive sampling; POCIS; Sampling rate; Water framework directive
Description The possibilities of expanding a groundwater quality monitoring scheme by passive sampling using polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) comprising HLB sorbent as the receiving phase were explored. Passive sampling and grab sampling were carried out simultaneously in the regions with vulnerable groundwater resources in Slovakia, between 2013 and 2021. For 27 pesticides and degradation products detected both in POCIS and the grab samples, in situ sampling rates were calculated and statistically evaluated. The limited effectiveness of the receiving phase in POCIS for sampling polar or ionized compounds was confirmed through a comparison of the medians of compound-specific sampling rates. For the majority of the monitored compounds the median sampling rates varied between 0.01 and 0.035 L/day. In some cases, the actual in situ values could be confirmed by parallel exposure of POCIS and silicone rubber sheet employed to obtain a benchmark for maximum attainable sampling rate. Sampling site and sampling period appear to have also some influence on the sampling rates, which was attributed in part to the groundwater velocity varying in both space and time. The influence of physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, electrolytic conductivity) remains mostly questionable due to the naturally limited ranges of recorded values over the entire duration of the study. Concentrations of pollutants in POCIS could be used for predicting time weighed average concentrations in water, provided the sampling rates were known and relatively constant. Generally, the compound-specific sampling rate cannot be considered constant due to a combination of naturally varying environmental factors that influence the actual in situ sampling rate. The relative standard deviation of concentration data from POCIS exposed in triplicates varied between approx. 5 %-50 %. Utilizing exploratory data analysis approach and tools enabled us to obtain a relatively complex picture of the situation and progress regarding pesticide pollution of groundwater in the monitored areas.
Related projects:

You are running an old browser version. We recommend updating your browser to its latest version.

More info