Staphylococcus petrasii diagnostics and its pathogenic potential enhanced by mobile genetic elements
|Year of publication
|Article in Periodical
|Magazine / Source
|International Journal of Medical Microbiology
|MU Faculty or unit
|Coagulase-negative staphylococci; Mobile genetic elements; Methicillin resistance; MALDI-TOF MS; Molecular subtyping; Virulence factors
|Staphylococcus petrasii is recently described coagulase negative staphylococcal species and an opportunistic human pathogen, still often misidentified in clinical specimens. Four subspecies are distinguished in S. petrasii by polyphasic taxonomical analyses, however a comparative study has still not been done on the majority of isolates and their genome properties have not yet been thoroughly analysed. Here, we describe the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of 65 isolates and the results of de novo sequencing, whole genome assembly and annotation of draft genomes of five strains. The strains were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to the species level and the majority of the strains were identified to the subspecies level by fingerprinting methods, (GTG)5 repetitive PCR and ribotyping. Macrorestriction profiling by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was confirmed to be a suitable strain typing method. Comparative genomics revealed the presence of new mobile genetic elements carrying antimicrobial resistance factors such as staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec, transposones, phage-inducible genomic islands, and plasmids. Their mosaic structure and similarity across coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus suggest the possible exchange of these elements. Numerous putative virulence factors such as adhesins, autolysins, exoenzymes, capsule formation genes, immunomodulators, the phage-associated sasX gene, and SCC-associated spermidine N-acetyltransferase gene, pseudouridine and sorbitol utilization operons might explain clinical manifestations of S. petrasii isolates. The increasing recovery of S. petrasii isolates from human clinical material, the multi-drug resistance including methicillin resistance of S. petrasii subsp. jettensis strains, and virulence factors homologous to other pathogenic staphylococci demonstrate the importance of the species in human disease.