Profiling Tryptophan Catabolites of Human Gut Microbiota and Acute-Phase Protein Levels in Neonatal Dried Blood Specimens
|Year of publication||2021|
|Type||Article in Periodical|
|Magazine / Source||Frontiers in Microbiology|
|MU Faculty or unit|
|Keywords||human gut microbiota; tryptophan and kynurenine metabolism; dried blood specimens; acute-phase proteins; immunomodulation|
National screening programs use dried blood specimens to detect metabolic disorders or aberrant protein functions that are not clinically evident in the neonatal period. Similarly, gut microbiota metabolites and immunological acute-phase proteins may reveal latent immune aberrations. Microbial metabolites interact with xenobiotic receptors (i.e., aryl hydrocarbon and pregnane-X) to maintain gastrointestinal tissue health, supported by acute-phase proteins, functioning as sensors of microbial immunomodulation and homeostasis. The delivery (vaginal or cesarean section) shapes the microbial colonization, which substantially modulates both the immune system's response and mucosal homeostasis. This study profiled microbial metabolites of the kynurenine and tryptophan pathway and acute-phase proteins in 134 neonatal dried blood specimens. We newly established neonatal blood levels of microbial xenobiotic receptors ligands (i.e., indole-3-aldehyde, indole-3-butyric acid, and indole-3-acetamide) on the second day of life. Furthermore, we observed diverse microbial metabolic profiles in neonates born vaginally and via cesarean section, potentially due to microbial immunomodulatory influence. In summary, these findings suggest the supportive role of human gut microbiota in developing and maintaining immune system homeostasis.