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Pre-industrial composition of woodlands and modern deforestation events in the southern part of the Western Carpathians

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WIEZIK Maroš HÁJKOVÁ Petra JAMRICHOVÁ Eva HRIVNÁK Richard HÁJEK Michal

Rok publikování 2019
Druh Článek v odborném periodiku
Časopis / Zdroj Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology
Fakulta / Pracoviště MU

Přírodovědecká fakulta

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Doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2018.10.009
Klíčová slova Climazonal forests; Pollen analyses; Central Slovakia; Vegetation development; Human colonisation waves; Fir-beech forests
Popis The southern part of the Western Carpathians is relatively poorly investigated from the perspective of vegetation changes in the Late Holocene.We analysed two fen profiles (Kláťa and Pálenica) in the Slovenské rudohorieMts (Slovakia), aiming to reconstruct the regional vegetation composition before humans started to have a strong influence to determine the major developmental stages of the woodland vegetation and to date significant deforestation events. According to the results of radiocarbon dating, the Kláťa fen initiated around 1230 AD whereas the Pálenica fen initiated around 570 CE. Both profiles exhibited small differences in their tree composition and its development. Pollen data indicate a prevalence of Fagus, Abies and Picea, with an admixture of Quercus, Ulmus, Fraxinus, Acer and Tilia in the oldest layers of both profiles. The abundance of spruce pollen was higher in the Pálenica fen, where fossilised stomata of spruce provide evidence of its local occurrence. The Kláťa fen, however, exhibited a lower abundance of spruce pollen and was locally more encroached by fir, as evidenced by its macrocopic remains. Young layers of both profiles showed signs of strong deforestation between ca 1530 and 1750 CE,which was indicated by a decrease in pollen of climax trees, an increase in pollen of grassland species and an increase in anthropogenic indicators. Such changes in the composition of pollen spectra clearly coincided with increased human pressure during the colonisationwaves since the 16th century and with the development of industry. Human pressure has had a decisive influence on compositional changes in woodlands and their transformation into grasslands and arable fields.
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