Informace o publikaci

Glacial-relict symptoms in the Western Carpathian flora

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Rok publikování 2018
Druh Článek v odborném periodiku
Časopis / Zdroj Folia Geobotanica
Fakulta / Pracoviště MU

Přírodovědecká fakulta

Klíčová slova Bryophytes; Biogeography; Central Europe; Habitat preferences; Glacial relict; Macroscopic terrestrial lichens; Vascular plants
Přiložené soubory
Popis Glacial relicts have been regionally more common in glacial than in recent times. A rigorous assessment of which species are indeed glacial relicts is extremely difficult because direct evidence is untraceable or equivocal for many species. We aimed to identify species of the Western Carpathian flora (vascular plants, bryophytes and terrestrial lichens) that display apparent biogeographical and ecological symptoms, suggesting a wider regional or supra-regional distribution during glacial times, or at least before the middle-Holocene climate optimum. We worked with the premise that exemplary relict species should tolerate continental and/or arctic climates, should have large distribution ranges with disjunctions, being regionally rare and ecologically conservative nowadays, should be associated with habitats that occurred during glacial times (tundra, steppe, peatland, open coniferous forest) and should display a restriction of ecological niches in the study region. The assessed species were primarily those with boreo-continental or artcic-alpine distribution. We demonstrated a conspicuous gradient of glacial-relict symptoms, with Carex vaginata, Betula nana, Trichophorum pumilum, Nephroma arcticum, Saxifraga hirculus and Cladonia stellaris topping the ranking. Based on the arbitrary ranking, 289 taxa can be considered high-probability relicts. For only a minority of them, there are any phylogeographical and/or palaeoecological data available from the study area. Biogeographical and ecological symptoms of 144 taxa suggest that they retreated rapidly after the Last Glacial Maximum whereas other species probably retreated later. The first principal component of biogeographical symptoms sorted species from circumpolar arctic-alpine species of acidic peatlands and wet tundra to strongly continental species of steppe, steppe-tundra and mineral-rich fens. This differentiation may mirror the altitudinal zonation of glacial vegetation in the Western Carpathians.
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