How E-, L-, and P-Selectins Bind to sLe(x) and PSGL-1: A Quantification of Critical Residue Interactions
|Článek v odborném periodiku
|Časopis / Zdroj
|Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
|Fakulta / Pracoviště MU
|Selectins; Critical Residue Interactions
|Selectins and their ability to interact with specific ligands are a cornerstone in cell communication. Over the last three decades, a considerable wealth of experimental and molecular modeling insights into their structure and modus operandi were gathered. Nonetheless, explaining the role of individual selectin residues on a quantitative level remained elusive, despite its importance in understanding the structure-function relationship in these molecules and designing their inhibitors. This work explores essential interactions of selectin-ligand binding, employing a multiscale approach that combines molecular dynamics, quantumchemical calculations, and residue interaction network models. Such an approach successfully reproduces most of the experimental findings. It proves to be helpful, with the potential for becoming an established tool for quantitative predictions of residue contribution to the binding of biomolecular complexes. The results empower us to quantify the importance of particular residues and functional groups in the protein-ligand interface and to pinpoint differences in molecular recognition by the three selectins. We show that mutations in the E-, L-, and P-selectins, e.g., different residues in positions 46, 85, 97, and 107, present a crucial difference in how the ligand is engaged. We assess the role of sulfation of tyrosine residues in PSGL-1 and suggest that TyrSO3- in position 51 interacting with Arg85 in P-selectin is a significant factor in the increased affinity of P-selectin to PSGL-1 compared to E- and L-selectins. We propose an original pharmacophore targeting five essential PSGL-binding sites based on the analysis of the selectin center dot center dot center dot PSGL-1 interactions.