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Past and present risk of spring frosts for fruit trees in the Czech Republic



Rok publikování 2024
Druh Článek v odborném periodiku
Časopis / Zdroj Theoretical and Applied Climatology
Fakulta / Pracoviště MU

Přírodovědecká fakulta

Klíčová slova spring frost; late spring frost; false spring; frost risk day; fruit tree; spring phenology of fruit trees; fruit-tree yields; frost damage; Czech Republic
Popis Recent climate warming is reflected in the advanced onset of spring phenological phases of fruit trees and in so-called false springs. This then manifests as an increased risk of trees being damaged by late frosts in the sensitive growing stage. Based on the homogenised temperature series of 155 climatological stations divided into two altitudinal groups (below 300 m a.s.l. and 301–600 m a.s.l.), a climatological analysis of selected variables in relation to atmospheric circulation over the territory of the Czech Republic during the period 1961–2021 was performed. The number of frost days and the dates of their latest onset exhibited negative linear trends; however, only 16% and 20% were statistically significant. The onset of false spring (at least ten consecutive days with daily maximum???10 °C) was also characterised by decreasing trends, which significantly deepened after 1980. Spring frost days were particularly attributed to higher frequencies of anticyclonic circulation types such as the central anticyclone and circulation types with northeastern, eastern and southeastern airflow. False spring onset was particularly connected with the central anticyclone and circulation types with western and southwestern airflow. The increasing trends of frost risk days (days between the beginning of the false spring and the date of the latest frost with daily minimum?<?-1.5 °C) were statistically nonsignificant. Local series of fruit trees from southeastern Moravia proved to have significantly earlier onset of the first blossom and full blossoming phenophases. Although the damage by late frosts has been identified as an important factor contributing to low yields of fruit trees during the period 1996–2021 in the Czech Republic, other factors (e.g. other weather phenomena, diseases, pests, site, taking preventive measures against frost) must also be taken into account.
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