Informace o publikaci

Non-western influence operations in North Macedonia : a reason for concern or push towards the west?

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Rok publikování 2023
Druh Článek v odborném periodiku
Časopis / Zdroj European Security
Fakulta / Pracoviště MU

Fakulta sociálních studií

Klíčová slova North Macedonia; influence operations; Russia; Western Balkans; European Union; NATO
Přiložené soubory
Popis Hybrid warfare is playing an increasingly important role in global geopolitical competition. This article examines the elements of hybrid activities conducted by Russia, China, Turkey and the Gulf States in North Macedonia and sheds light on ways their geostrategic goals transpose into domestic political and socio-economic debates. Drawing on dozen interviews with Macedonian practitioners in the field and on the analyses of official documents and policy papers, the article provides evidence that there is no certain type of influence operations that can be attributed to only one external actor, but all countries use a combination of influence operations to achieve their desired objectives. The article asserts a rising tendency of China and confirms a solidified position of Turkey along various axes at the expense of Russia whose influence continues to fade, particularly in the context of the war in Ukraine.
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