Informace o publikaci

Spatial gradients of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air, atmospheric deposition, and surface water of the Ganges River basin

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SHARMA Brij Mohan MELYMUK Lisa Emily BHARAT Girija K. PŘIBYLOVÁ Petra SÁŇKA Ondřej KLÁNOVÁ Jana NIZZETTO Luca

Rok publikování 2018
Druh Článek v odborném periodiku
Časopis / Zdroj Science of the Total Environment
Fakulta / Pracoviště MU

Přírodovědecká fakulta

Citace
www https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048969718303048
Doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.262
Klíčová slova PAHs; Ganges River; Source identification; Urbanization; Health risk assessment
Popis Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous semi-volatile organic pollutants. Their environmental occurrence is of global concern as some of them are carcinogens, mutagens, and teratogens. In this study, concentrations and distributions of 16 priority PAHs (Sigma PAHs) were measured in air, atmospheric deposition, and surface water at various locations in Himalayan, Middle, and Lower Reaches of the Ganges River, covering a spatial transect of 2500 km, during two seasons (pre-monsoon and monsoon). The concentration of Sigma PAHs ranged between 2.2 and 182.2 ng m(-3) in air, between 186 and 8810 ng m(-2) day(-1) in atmospheric deposition, and between 0.05 and 65.9 ng L-1 in surface water. Air concentrations were strongly correlated with human population density. In the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Ganges River, atmospheric PAHs were mainly attributed to fossil fuel combustion sources. In the Himalayan Reach the influence of forest fire or biomass combustion was evident during the dry pre-monsoon season. Seasonality in concentrations of PAHs in river water was evident in the Himalayan Reach of the river, as a probable consequence of climate-modulated secondary source intensity (i.e. releases from glacier melting). Seasonality faded in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Ganges where water contamination is expected to mainly reflect anthropogenic primary sources. Ambient air concentrations were used to calculate the probabilistic incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). It was expectedly found to be higher in the Middle and Lower Reaches compared to the Himalayan Reach. The strong correlation between population density and air concentrations suggests population density may be used as a surrogate variable to assess human health risk in data-sparse regions such as the Ganges River basin.
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