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Plastics in our water: Fish microbiomes at risk?

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ADAMOVSKÝ Ondřej JOSEPH Jr H. Bisesi MARTYNIUK Christopher J.

Rok publikování 2021
Druh Článek v odborném periodiku
Fakulta / Pracoviště MU

Přírodovědecká fakulta

Klíčová slova Phthalate; Bisphenol A; Immunity; Microbiome; Gastrointestinal system; Rubber
Popis Water contaminated with plastic debris and leached plasticizers can be ingested or taken up by aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates alike, exerting adverse effects on multiple tissues including the gastrointestinal tract. As such, gut microbiomes of aquatic animals are susceptible targets for toxicity. Recent studies conducted in teleost fishes report that microplastics and plasticizers (e.g., phthalates, bisphenol A) induce gastrointestinal dysbiosis and alter microbial diversity in the gastrointestinal system. Here we synthesize the current state of the science regarding plastics, plasticizers, and their effects on microbiomes of fish. Literature suggests that microplastics and plasticizers increase the abundance of opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms (e.g. Actinobacillus, Mycoplasma and Stenotrophomonas) in fish and reveal that gamma-proteobacteria are sensitive to microplastics. Recommendations moving forward for the research field include (1) environmentally relevant exposures to improve understanding of the long-term impacts of microplastic and plasticizer contamination on the fish gastrointestinal microbiome; (2) investigation into the potential impacts of understudied polymers such as polypropylene, polyamide and polyester, and (3) studies with elastomers such as rubbers that are components of tire materials, as these chemicals often dominate plastic debris. Focus on both microplastics and the gut microbiota is intensifying in environmental toxicology, and herein lies an opportunity to improve evaluation of global ecological impacts associated with plastic contamination. This is important as the microbiota is intimately tied to an individual's health and fragmentation of microbial community networks and gut dysbiosis can result in disease susceptibility and early mortality events.
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