Thromboembolism is the third leading vascular disease, with a high annual incidence of 1 to 2 cases per 1000 individuals within the general population. The broader term venous thromboembolism generally refers to deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and/or a combination of both. Therefore, thromboembolism can affect both – the central and peripheral veins. Arterial thromboembolism causes systemic ischemia by disturbing blood flow and oxygen supply to organs, tissues, and cells causing, therefore, apoptosis and/or necrosis in the affected tissues. Currently applied antithrombotic drugs used, e.g. to protect affected individuals against ischemic stroke, demonstrate significant limitations. For example, platelet inhibitors possess only moderate efficacy. On the other hand, thrombolytics and anticoagulants significantly increase hemorrhage. Contextually, new approaches are extensively under consideration to develop next-generation antithrombotics with improved efficacy and more personalized and targeted application. To this end, phytochemicals show potent antithrombotic efficacy demonstrated in numerous in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models as well as in clinical evaluations conducted on healthy individuals and persons at high risk of thrombotic events, such as pregnant women (primary care), cancer, and COVID-19-affected patients (secondary and tertiary care). Here, we hypothesized that specific antithrombotic and antiplatelet effects of plant-derived compounds might be of great clinical utility in primary, secondary, and tertiary care. To increase the efficacy, precise patient stratification based on predictive diagnostics is essential for targeted protection and treatments tailored to the person in the framework of 3P medicine. Contextually, this paper aims at critical review toward the involvement of specific classes of phytochemicals in antiplatelet and anticoagulation adapted to clinical needs. The paper exemplifies selected plant-derived drugs, plant extracts, and whole plant foods/herbs demonstrating their specific antithrombotic, antiplatelet, and fibrinolytic activities relevant for primary, secondary, and tertiary care. One of the examples considered is antithrombotic and antiplatelet protection specifically relevant for COVID-19-affected patient groups.